THE EXPIATION (FASTING FOR TWO MONTHS) FOR INTENTIONALLY BREAKING FAST IN RAMADAN; AN ERRONEOUS BELIEF
Written and Compiled by;
Assoutudeen Abu Mubaashir!
Islam is a religion free from ignorance and it’s built on knowledge. It is always based on direct evidence from the Kitab and Sunnah in which all other judgements are being passed upon. It is baseless and erroneous to pass judgement out of self-desire and ignorance without full knowledge on a matter regarding the deen of Allah, most especially in this blessed month of Ramadan concerning fasting.
As it has been explained in our previous write-ups on what really invalidate our fast which is no more a news to a conscious Muslim that there are seven major things that break the fast. Other actions are subservient to the listed actions as follow:
3⃣ Eating and drinking
4⃣ Anything that is regarded as coming under the same heading as eating and drinking
5⃣ Letting blood by means of cupping and its likes
6⃣ Vomiting deliberately
7⃣ Menstruation and postnatal bleeding
The first of these things that invalidate the fast is intercourse. This is the most serious and the most sinful of the things that invalidate the fast. Whoever (A man or a woman) has intercourse during the day in Ramadaan deliberately and out of his or her own freewill, in which the two circumcised parts meet and the tip of the manhood disappears in either of the two passages, has invalidated his fast, whether he ejaculates or not.
He and his wife have to repent, complete that day (i.e., not eat or drink until sunset), make up that day’s fast later on and offer a severe expiation. The evidence for that is the hadeeth narrated by Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: A man came to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and said, “I am doomed, O Messenger of Allaah!” He said, “Why are you doomed?” He said, “I had intercourse with my wife (during the day) in Ramadaan.” He said, “Can you free a slave?” He said, “No.” He said, “Can you fast for two consecutive months?” He said, “No.” He said, “Can you feed sixty poor persons?” He said, “No.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1936; Muslim, 1111)
With regards to this hadith, scholars of Islam have talked extensively on the fact that the claim for any of the things that can invalidate fast outside intercourse will not required expiation.
No expiation is required for any of the things that break the fast apart from intercourse. Saying whoever breaks his fast with food or drink or anything else beside sex will repay it with 2 months fasting is baseless as far as fiqh of fasting is concerned.
Al-Imam As-sa’diy said and commented on the above hadith that
ومن أفطر فعليه القضاء، إذا كان فطره بأكل، أو بشرب أو قيء، عمدا أو حجامة أو إمناء بمباشرة، إلا من أفطر بجماع فإنه يقضي ويعنق رقبة ، فإن لم يجد فصيام شهرين متتابعين، فإن لم يستطع فإطعام ستين مسكينا
Whoever break his fast will only repay it once even if He breaks it with food or drink or vomiting intentionally or with cupping or masturbation. Except the one who break his fast with sexual intercourse, He will have to free a slave if he doesn’t have the capability, He will have to fast for two consecutive months, if he can’t do that, He will have to feed sixty poors.
(منهج السالكين وتوضيح الفقه في الدين لشيخ الامام السعدي)
The inference from the scholar in the aforementioned hadith is that the prophet commanded him to choose one ( though in consecutive order) among the three things in which fasting for two months is among them. It directly means that it is not compulsory to fast for two consecutive months when the offender can observe the first expiation. If he can’t then first option, fasting for two consecutive months holds before the third option.
Summarily, this made it clear that fasting for two months is ONLY for the offenders who break their fast with intercourse (and doesn’t have the ability to observe freeing a slave or feeding 60 poor people) and not that of the general and erroneous ideology.
⚠ EVILS OF BREAKING FAST INTENTIONALLY WITHOUT ANY RECOGNISED CONSTRAINT
Firstly, in the land of the Shariah where the laws of Allah are being implemented fully, as for a Muslim who deliberately does not fast in Ramadan, thinking it is permissible to do so, he has become a disbeliever. He should be asked to repent, and if he repents, all well and good, otherwise he is to be executed. This is the view of majority of the scholars.
Meanwhile, whoever openly breaks the fast should be given a disciplinary punishment by the ruler, a punishment that will deter him and others like him from doing this grave act.
There is a number of comments by the scholars concerning that;
Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said: If a person breaks the fast in Ramadan, believing that to be permissible although he is aware of the prohibition on doing so, but he thinks that it is permissible for him, he must be executed.
He continues, If he is an evildoer, he should be punished for breaking the fast of Ramadan, as the ruler sees fit. If he is ignorant, he is to be taught the ruling.(al-Fataawa al-Kubra (2/473) )
Ibn Hajar al-Haytami (may Allah have mercy on him) said: It is one of the major sins not fasting one of the days of Ramadan, and breaking the fast by having intercourse or otherwise, with no excuse such as sickness or travelling.(az-Zawaajir (1/323)).
The scholars of the standing committee for issuing Fatwas said: Breaking the fast during the day in Ramadan on the part of one who is accountable is a major sin, if it is done without a legitimate excuse.
( Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa’imah (10/357)).
Shaykh Ibn Baaz said: Whoever breaks the fast on any day in Ramadan, with no legitimate excuse, has committed a grave evil. Whoever repents, Allah will accept his repentance, so he must repent to Allah sincerely, by regretting what he has done in the past and resolving not to repeat it, and he should ask his Lord for forgiveness a great deal, and hasten to make up the day that he did not fast. (Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa’imah (10/357)).
Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) was asked about the ruling on breaking the fast during the day in Ramadan with no excuse.
He replied: Breaking the fast during the day in Ramadan with no excuse is a major sin, and the individual becomes an evildoer thereby. He must repent to Allah and make up the day that he did not fast. (Majmoo‘ Fataawa wa Rasaa’il al’Uthaymeen (19/89)).
An-Nasaa’i narrated in al-Kubra (3273) that Abu Umaamah said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) say: Whilst I was sleeping, two men came to me and took hold of my arms… And he quoted the hadith, in which he said: Then they set off with me, and I saw some people hung up by their Achilles tendon, with the corners of their mouths torn and dripping with blood. I said: Who are these? He said: These are the people who used to break the fast before it was permissible to do so.
Sheikh Al-Albaani classed it as saheeh in as-Saheehah (3951), after which Sheikh himself said: This is the punishment of those who fasted then broke the fast before the time for breaking the fast came. So how about those who did not fast at all?! We ask Allah to keep us safe and sound in this world and the hereafter.
Conclusively, we say it isn’t permissible to break fast intentionally when there is no recognized constraint for a sane Muslim who believes in the punishment of Allah in this life, the grave and hereafter.
If the scholars most especially Ibn Taymiyya can attribute execution to someone who does that, then we should know the gravity of the sin to Allah. If you think you’re in a country where sharia isn’t practised, kindly note that the punishments of hell fire is indeed a punishment which shall be melted on evil doer like you who isn’t ready to repent. We supplicate to the uncreated Creator to grant us steadfastness and patience upon this deen so as to endure all forms of hardship that come our way as a result of our eeman. May almighty Allah grant us his forgiveness and admit us to Jannah (Aameen)
And Allah knows best.
© Assoutudeen Prophetic Medicine Foundation (APMF)