📚 The Concept of Solatul-l-Eid
Written and Compiled by: HasbiyaLlah Al Manbahiy.
📘 What’s Solatul Eid?
Eid literally means a day where people gather for celebration while in the Shari’ah of Al Islam, Eid is limited to only two day; Eidul Fitr (1st day of Shawwal) and Eidul ‘Adha (10th day of Dhul-Hijjah).
📘 What’s the ruling on Solatul Eid?
The scholars unanimously agreed that the Eid prayer is prescribed in Islam. Some of them say that it is Sunnah, some say that it is fard kifaayah (a communal obligation) and some say that it is fard ‘ayn (an individual obligation), and that not doing it is a sin. They quoted as evidence the fact that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) commanded even the virgins and women in seclusion, i.e., those who did not ordinarily come out, to attend the Eid prayer place, except that those who were menstruating should keep away from the prayer-place itself, because it is not permissible for a menstruating woman to stay in the mosque; it is permissible for her to pass through but not to stay there.
This was also the view favoured by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him).
To buttress the point of being fard ayn, if Jumu’ah and Eid fall on the same day, the Eid prayer should be held, as should Jumu’ah prayer, as it is indicated by the apparent meaning of the hadeeth of al-Nu’maan ibn Basheer which was narrated by Muslim in his Saheeh. But those who attend the Eid prayer with the imam may attend Jumu’ah if they wish, or they may pray Zuhr.
Therefore, if Eid prayer isn’t obligatory, it shouldn’t have rendered an obligatory action (praying solatul Jumuah) to be a matter of choice. This is a basic ruling in Usulu Fiqh.
📘 How is it prayed?
Eid prayer is one where the Imam attends and leads the people in praying two rak’ahs.
‘Umar Ibn Khattab (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “The prayer of al-Fitr is two rak’ahs and the prayer of al-Adha is two rak’ahs, complete and not shortened, on the tongue of your Prophet, and the one who fabricates lies is doomed.”
This hadith was narrated by Ibn Khuzaymah and Imam An Nisai in his sunnah.
It was narrated that Abu Sa’eed said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to come out on the day of al-Fitr and al-Adha to the prayer place, and the first thing he would do was to offer the prayer. Narrated by al-Bukhaari: 956.
In the first rak’ah he should say Takbeerat al-ihraam (say “Allaahu akbar” to start the prayer), after which he should say six or seven more takbeers, because of the hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her), “The takbeer of al-Fitr and al-Adha is seven takbeers in the first rak’ah and five takbeers in the second, apart from the takbeer of rukoo’
This was narrated by Abu Dawood and classed as saheeh by Sheikh al-Albaani
Then he should recite al-Faatihah, and recite Soorat Qaf in the first rak’ah. In the second rak’ah he should stand up saying takbeer, and when he has stood up completely he should say takbeer five times, and recite Soorat al-Faatihah then Soorat al-Qamar. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to recite these two soorahs during the two Eids. Or if he wishes he can recite Soorat al-A’la in the first rak’ah and Soorat al-Ghaashiyah in the second, because it was narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to recite al-A’la and al-Ghaashiyah in the Eid prayer.
The Imam should revive the Sunnah be reciting these soorahs so that the Muslims will become familiar with the Sunnah.
After the prayer, the imam should address the people. Part of the khutbah should be addressed specifically to the women, telling them of the things that they should do and warning them against the things that they should avoid, as the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to do. Because it was reported that the Messenger of Allah will adress the women separately after addressing the men.
The Khutubah would come after the prayer as opposed its position in Solatul Jumuah. Abu Sa’eed (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to come out to the prayer place on the day of al-Fitr and al-Adha, and the first thing he would start with was the prayer, then he would go and stand facing the people, while the people were sitting in their rows, and he would preach to them and advise them and command them. If he wanted to send out a military expedition he would do so and if he wanted to tell the people to do something he would do so, then he would leave.
📘 What are the etiquettes to be observed on or before the day of Eid?
1⃣It is highly encouraged to recite takbeer during the night of Eid from sunset on the last day of Ramadaan until the imam comes to lead the prayer. Any of the two prescribed takbeers can be used :
Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, laa iLaaha ill-Allaah, Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, wa Lillaahi’l-hamd (Allaah is Most Great, Allaah is Most Great, Allaah is Most Great, there is no god except Allaah, Allaah is Most Great, Allaah is Most Great , Allaah is Most Great, and all praise be to Allaah).
Or you say :
Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, laa ilaaha ill-Allaah, Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, wa Lillaahi’l-hamd (Allaah is Most Great, Allaah is Most Great, there is no god except Allaah, Allaah is Most Great, Allaah is Most Great, and all praise be to Allaah).
2⃣ The men should wear their best dress and the women should also appear decent but not in flashy dress that will attract the men. It is forbidden for them to wear perfume or cosmetics.
3⃣ It’s encouraged to perform ritual bath as we do for the day of Jumuah. Some reports have it that some of the pious predecessors used to observe Ghusl on the day of Eid.
4⃣ Eating odd number of dates before setting out for Eidul Fitr prayer is encouraged as this has been reported from the Messenger of Allah.
5⃣ One of the rulings on the day of Eid – Eid al-Fitr – is that Zakaat al-Fitr is due on this day. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) enjoined that it should be paid before the Eid prayer. It is permissible to pay it one or two days before that, because of the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) which was narrated by al-Bukhaari: “They used to give it one or two days before (Eid) al-Fitr.” If it is paid after the Eid prayer, it does not count as Sadaqat al-Fitr, because of the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Abbaas: “Whoever pays it before the prayer, it is Zakaat al-Fitr, and whoever pays it after the prayer, it is ordinary charity.”
6⃣ Taking different route while going and coming from the prayer ground. Jabir bin Abdullah narrated that: On the day of Eid, the Prophet used to return (after offering the Eid prayer) through a way different from that by which he went. Narrated by Imam Al Bukhari.
📘 Ruling on offering Eid prayer at home because of this current pandemic
Firstly, there are different of opinions of scholars on whoever missed the Eid prayer for a reason. They differed on the number of rakahs he should made and if they have to make khutubah for it if they are many.
Al-Muzni narrated from al-Shaafa’i (may Allah have mercy on him) in Mukhtasar al-Umm: He may offer the Eid prayer on his own in his house, as may the traveller, the slave and the woman.
Ibn Qudaamah said in al-Mughni (Hanbali): He has the choice: if he wishes he may pray it on his own, and if he wishes he may pray it in congregation.
In summary, if a person misses it and wants to make it up, it is mustahabb for him to do that, so he should pray it in the proper manner but without a khutbah following it. This is the view of Imam Maalik, al-Shaafa’i, Ahmad, al-Nakha’i and other scholars. The basic principle concerning that is the words of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him): “If you come to the prayer then come walking, calmly and with dignity. Whatever you catch up with, pray, and whatever you miss, make it up.”
That being said, can we say praying Eid at home because of the current pandemic falls under the same ruling of someone who miss the Eid?
Shaykh ‘Abd ar-Rahmaan al-Barraak has issued a fatwa stating that if it is not possible to offer the Eid prayer in any land because of the epidemic and lockdown, then the ruling is the same ruling as applies to one who misses the Eid prayer. So this prayer may be offered at home without a khutbah.
He (may Allah preserve him) says:
If it is not possible to hold the Eid prayers because of some impediments, as it’s the case at present, then the ruling on that is the same as the ruling on one who misses this prayer – meaning the Eid prayer.
There are several scholarly views concerning that. Some said that he should offer this prayer with two rak‘ahs, and others said that it should be four rakahs. And some said that it should be offered in the usual manner, which is the correct view. What that means is that it should be offered with two rak‘ahs and the extra takbeeraat, the recitation should be done out loud, and there should be no khutbah, as it’s the case with every act of worship that is being made up: it should be made up in the manner in which it is usually done, and it may be offered individually or in congregation.
The evidence for that is what Anas ibn Maalik (may Allah be pleased with him) used to do. If he missed the Eid prayer, he would gather his family and his sons, then his freed slave ‘Abdullah ibn Abi ‘Utbah would lead them in praying two rak‘ahs, saying the takbeeraat, like the prayer and takbeeraat of the people of the city.
With regard to the view that the Eid prayer cannot be made up, that is not applicable in this case, because in the current situation the Eid prayer cannot be offered in the first place, so the obligation to offer it has not been carried out. Rather in this situation we may draw an analogy for the Eid prayer with the one who missed it, as noted above. And Allah knows best.
End of Shaykh quote.
In conclusion, many scholars are of the view that Solatul Eid can be prayed at home either individually or in congregation owing to a valid reason as it’s in the case of this current pandemic.
We beseech Allah to wipe away this virus from the earth and forgive us all our shortcomings. He’s the only One with absolute power over His creations.
And Allah knows best
©️ Assoutudeen Prophetic Medicine Foundation