Fiqh

Making Blasphemous Statement Against Prophet Muhammad: A Call to Muslims and Non-Muslims

Making Blasphemous Statement Against Prophet Muhammad; A Call To Muslims & Non- Muslims!

Written & Compiled by; Assoutudeen Abu Mubāshīr!

E-mail: propheticmedicineng@gmail.com

It has become a widespread matter on social media platforms the issue of a Kano based musician named Yahaya Shariff Aminu who blasphemed the best of mankind (prophet Muhammad) in one of his songs. While some Muslims categorized such act of punishment melted on the singer as sardonic, barbaric, strict and unconvincing, manual non-muslim folks spitted fire in the rage of annoyance to condemn the situation.

In this plight, it is highly imminent and ferociously inimical to quickly expose ourselves to the evils of cursing the Religion (Islam) and everything in its entirety. This is because many people, including Muslims, misunderstand Sharia. It’s often associated with the amputation of limbs, death by stoning, lashes and other medieval punishments. Because of this, it is sometimes thought of as draconian. Even some people in the West view Sharia as archaic and unfair social ideas that are imposed upon people who live in Sharia-controlled countries.

Meanwhile a practicing Muslim, however, should hold a different view. In the Islamic tradition, Sharia is seen as something that nurtures humanity. We should see the Sharia not in the light of something primitive but as something divinely revealed. In a society where social problems are more endemically pandemic, Sharia frees humanity to realise its individual potential.

Read more here
https://www.facebook.com/story.php?story_fbid=643736679592970&id=157656431534333&scmts=scwspsdd&extid=T6mGNpn7CAKKoJsl

Sheikhul- Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may almighty Allah have mercy upon him) defines blasphemy as the use of words that show a lack of respect and are perceived by all people, regardless of their beliefs, to be profane, exactly like cursing, condemnation, etc. (Majmoó Fataawa)

It should be known that insulting Allah Himself, His Prophets (Muhammad & Jesus inclusive), Companions and Upright Muslims are great sins encapsulated with high injury at both worlds such that the Shariah doesn’t take it with levity, even for a Muslim who commits any of them intentionally, jokingly or through any other forms.

It is stubbly prohibited in Islam to commit any of those Sins cos Allah says;
وَلَئِن سَأَلْتَهُمْ لَيَقُولُنَّ إِنَّمَا كُنَّا نَخُوضُ وَنَلْعَبُۚ قُلْ أَبِٱللَّهِ وَءَايَٰتِهِۦ وَرَسُولِهِۦ كُنتُمْ تَسْتَهْزِءُونَ

And if you ask them, they will surely say, “We were only conversing and playing.” Say, “Is it Allah and His verses and His Messenger that you were mocking?” (Qur’an 9: Verse 65)


لَا تَعْتَذِرُوا۟ قَدْ كَفَرْتُم بَعْدَ إِيمَٰنِكُمْۚ إِن نَّعْفُ عَن طَآئِفَةٍ مِّنكُمْ نُعَذِّبْ طَآئِفَةًۢ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَانُوا۟ مُجْرِمِينَ
Make no excuse; you have disbelieved after your belief. If We pardon one faction of you – We will punish another faction because they were criminals. (Qur’an verse 66)

Sheikh Abd’azeez Ibn Bàaz was asked concerning a Muslim who commit any of those aforementioned sins, He replied;

Sheikh Ibn Baz (may Allah confer mercy upon him) replied, Reviling religion is one of the worst of major sins and the gravest of evils. The same applies to reviling the Lord, Glorified be He. These are two of the gravest things that nullify Islam and cause apostasy. If the one who reviles the Lord, Exalted be He, or reviles religion is a Muslim, then he thereby becomes an apostate from Islam and a disbeliever. He shall first be asked to repent, then he is either to repent or be executed by a decision from the competent authority, i.e., the Shariah court. Some scholars suggested that he shall not be asked to repent, but rather he shall be executed immediately, since his crime is extremely hideous. However, the most preponderant view is that he shall first be asked to repent, in the hope that Allah may bless him with guidance and drive him back to the truth. Still, he shall be punished by lashing and imprisonment, so that he may not repeat such a heinous crime. Similarly, if someone reviles the Quran or the Messenger (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) or any other Prophet, he shall first be asked to repent, then he is either to repent or be executed. Reviling religion or the Messenger (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) or the Lord, Glorified be He, is something that nullifies Islam. So is making fun of Allah or His Messenger or Paradise or Hellfire or Divine Ordinances such as Salah or Zakah. Making fun of any of such things does nullify Islam. (Majmoò Fataawa Ibn Bàaz)

Therefore, mocking at, or cursing Allah or His Messenger or Religion is an act of disbelief that brings the perpetrator out of the Islamic creed accompanied with execution.

On this note, we advise and seriously warn our Muslim brothers & sisters not to socialize with non- Muslims on any platform on matters related to the Dīn out of ignorance or in order to appease them. Lest we may be sharing them the sin and thus be inflicted by Allah’s punishment. Allah says;


وَقَدْ نَزَّلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِى ٱلْكِتَٰبِ أَنْ إِذَا سَمِعْتُمْ ءَايَٰتِ ٱللَّهِ يُكْفَرُ بِهَا وَيُسْتَهْزَأُ بِهَا فَلَا تَقْعُدُوا۟ مَعَهُمْ حَتَّىٰ يَخُوضُوا۟ فِى حَدِيثٍ غَيْرِهِۦٓۚ إِنَّكُمْ إِذًا مِّثْلُهُمْۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ جَامِعُ ٱلْمُنَٰفِقِينَ وَٱلْكَٰفِرِينَ فِى جَهَنَّمَ جَمِيعًا
And it has already come down to you in the Book that when you hear the verses of Allah [recited], they are denied [by them] and ridiculed; so do not sit with them until they enter into another conversation. Indeed, you would then be like them. Indeed Allah will gather the hypocrites and disbelievers in Hell all together. (Qur’an 4: 140)

This ruling is applicable even in relation to criticizing or blaming the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) as regards any of his deeds, sayings, etc. Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah confer mercy upon him) clarified, “If someone criticizes a judgment or instruction by the Prophet, he should be executed, as the Prophet told us to do in his life and after his death”. (Majmoó fataawa)

Inadvertently, cursing the Prophets of Allah has always been condemned in the Shariah. The best of mankind (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) warned against this, saying,
«من سب أصحابي فعليه لعنة الله والملائكة والنّاس أجمعين»

{ حسنه الألباني في صحيح الجامع}

“Whoever reviles my Companions let the Curse of Allah, the Angels, and all people befall him”

[Declared Hasan by Al-Albani in “Series of Authentic Hadith Books: 2340”].

He (peace be upon him) also said,
«لا تسبوا أصحابي. لا تسبوا أصحابي. فوالذي نفسي بيده! لو أن أحدكم أنفق مثل أحد ذهبا، ما أدرك مد أحدهم، ولا نصيفه»
{ متفق عليه واللفظ لمسلم}

“Do not revile my companions, do not revile my Companions, for by the One in Whose Hand is my soul, if anyone were to spend the equivalent of Uhud in gold (as charity), it would not amount (in reward) to a Mudd (i.e., an Arabic dry volume measure) of (i.e., paid in charity by) one of them or (even) half of that”

[Agreed upon and this wording is for Muslim].

Imam Malik (may Allah rest his soul) said, “Whoever insults one of the Companions of Muhammad (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) — such as Abu Bakr, Omar, ‘Uthman, Abu- Huraira Mu’awiyah, Ali or ‘Amr Ibn Al-‘Aas (to mention a few) — by saying that they were astray and disbelieving shall be executed. (Muqodîma Muwatta Maleek).

Dear Muslim and non Muslim reader, If a Muslim should be deterred with these kind of punishments in a society that applies Shariah as their constitution, what do you think of a non- Muslim in the same society?

Scholars of Islam has unanimously agreed that; If the person who defames the best of mankind (Muhammad) (peace be upon him) is a non-Muslim living under a treaty with the Muslim state, then this is a violation of the treaty and he must be executed, but that should be left to the authorities.

In a secular state like Nigeria, a Muslim must not in any form mocks, nags or valiantly condemns other ‘religions’ in an inappropriate manner. This is because Allah has warned us to desist from such action so that nobody from ‘other religion’ will not ignorantly curse our beloved Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon Him) out of hatred and enmity. Allah says;


وَلَا تَسُبُّوا۟ ٱلَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ فَيَسُبُّوا۟ ٱللَّهَ عَدْوًۢا بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍۗ كَذَٰلِكَ زَيَّنَّا لِكُلِّ أُمَّةٍ عَمَلَهُمْ ثُمَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِم مَّرْجِعُهُمْ فَيُنَبِّئُهُم بِمَا كَانُوا۟ يَعْمَلُونَ

“And insult not those whom they (disbelievers) worship besides Allah, lest they insult Allah wrongfully without knowledge” [al-An’aam 6:108].

If Nigerian Muslims could emulate this command from their Lord, who is that person who could decipher the indulgence of our prophet Muhammad in a nasty way?! Not even an ordinary musician who already wines and dines with Shaytan could attack the best man to ever liveth on earth surface by hiding under the action of freedom of opinion. Every wise man knows that this so-called freedom of opinion is total violation of the sanctity of others and transgressing against them. This is not a freedom of opinion but a freedom of transgression encapsulated with deviant hate speech.

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) says that: It was narrated from one of the Christian kings that a man who followed the same religion as him (Christian) was brought to him, who used to revile the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and accuse him of lying. The king summoned his religious scholars and asked them: How long does a liar remain for? They said: Such and such – thirty years or thereabouts. The king said: This religion of Muhammad has lasted for more than five hundred years or six hundred years [i.e., at the time of that king], and it is prevailing and is accepted and followed. How can he be a liar? Then he had that man beheaded.
{Sharh al-‘Aqeedah al-Asfahaaniyyah }

If a Christian King behead another Christian in a Christian state all because the latter reviled the last Prophet of Islam, what do you expect in a state (Kano) dominated by Muslims who rules with Nigerian constitution who (the same Nigeria constitution) allows Shariah court to prevail on what’s incumbent to them?!

This is a stern warning to those who had planned and already planning to attack our prophet, his ways and actions through videos, audios, music, writing, speech making and all available means to desist from such lubricious act. If we Muslims hear a Christian or anyone else defaming the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), we will always denounce such person in strong terms no matter his worldly rank. As we are known as law abiding citizens who shall not go against the laws of the country, it is obligatory we report such person to the authorities whom we believe will carry out the required punishment on him without partiality. If there is no one who can carry out the (hadd) punishment of Allah and stand up for the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), then we (Muslims) will do whatever we can, so long as that will not lead to further mischief and harm against other people.

While we urge the Government to punish any Muslim who slander, mock and blaspheme ‘other religions’ and their act, it is haram (prohibited) to hear a kaafir (non- muslim) defaming the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and Muslims keep quiet.

Finally, we urge non Muslims to always imbibe the spirit of sportsmanship, study Islam and the Prophet himself, then they will understand while this iconic man named Muhammad has ruled/ still ruling the world even after his demise. These are few amongst the statements made by the non- Muslims about him;

1️⃣ Dr. Zwemer (a Canadian Orientalist) says: Muhammad was an able reformer, eloquent and well spoken, courageous and daring, a great thinker. We cannot attribute to him anything that contradicts these qualities. This Qur’aan that he brought and his history bear witness to the truth of these claims.

2️⃣ The Englishman George Bernard Shaw wrote a book called Muhammad, which was burned by the British authorities. He said: The world is in the utmost need of a man with the mentality of Muhammad. Medieval ecclesiastics, either through ignorance of bigotry, painted Mohammadanism in the darkest colors. They were in fact; trained to hate both the man Muhammad and his to them was anti-Christ. But I have studied his life, and found him to be extraordinary. I have reached the conclusion that he was never an enemy to Christianity. He must be called the Saviour of Humanity. I believe that if a man like him were to assume the dictatorship of the modern world, he would succeed in solving its problems in a way that would bring it much needed peace and happiness.

3️⃣ Annie Besant said: It is impossible for anyone who studies the life and character of the great Prophet of Arabia, who knows how he taught and how he lived, to feel anything but reverence for that mighty Prophet, one of the great messengers of the Supreme.

4️⃣ Michael Hart said in his book The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History (p. 13), where he put Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) at the head of his list of one hundred: I chose Muhammad to be top of this list because Muhammad was the only man in history who was supremely successful on both the religious and secular levels.

If non Muslims should study Muhammad (Peace be upon him) and later come out with these recommendations, how do you expect a sane Muslim to react when His name is blasphemed❓❗

©️ Assoutudeen Prophetic Medicine Foundation (APMF)

WHAT NEXT AFTER RAMADAN?

AFTER RAMADAN, WHAT NEXT❓

Written & Compiled by; Assoutudeen Abu Mubāshīr

All praises and thanks be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds. May His Peace and Blessings be upon our Noble Prophet, Muhammad at all times.

It is still important to say to all Muslim brothers and sisters though belatedly, “Eid Fitr Mubarak”!! May Allah accept our fasting and all our righteous deeds in the most blessed month of Ramadan. Amin.

There is no gainsaying about the fact that no month is comparable to Ramadan in the life of a Muslim. That is why any sincere Muslim will always wish that Ramadan stays, or at least wishes to live the spirit of the month throughout the year. But now, Ramadan, 1441 A.H is over.

What’s after Ramadan? Do the lessons of Ramadan end with it, or continue after it? To answer this question, we shall briefly go over these lessons:

1⃣ Fasting
We’ve learned from fasting how to soften our souls, break our desires and performing the concept of Uboodiyah to Allah alone. The prophet (peace be upon him) encouraged us to fast six days during the month of Shawwal when he said, “Whoever fasts the month of Ramadan and he follows it with six days of Shawwal, it is as if he fasts the whole year”. (Bukhari)

It was the tradition of the Prophet (peace be upon him) to fast Mondays, Thursdays, three days of each lunar month, the day of Arafah, Ashourah and most of Sha’ban and Muharram.

2⃣ Praying Tahjuud
Praying at night was the habit of the Prophet (peace be upon him) throughout his life, and he used to encourage his followers to do so. He (peace be upon him) said, “Do qiyam-ul-lail, the night prayer; it used to be the good deeds of the pious people before you. It draws you closer to your Lord, it causes your sins to be forgiven, and it causes you to avoid doing bad deeds”. (Abu Dāwood)

Allah (may He be exalted!) describes his pious servants that “they used to sleep a little at night” in Surat Al-Sajdah.

3⃣ The recitation of the Quran
You must not stop reading the Quran after Ramadan, otherwise you’ll be among those whom the prophet (peace be upon him and his households) described as Allah says, “And the messenger said, ‘O my Lord! Verily my people have deserted this Quran.

And remember the advice of the Prophet(peace be upon him) when he said, “Read the Quran repeatedly, for the reason that it is easier to be released from the chests of men than the camel from its leash”. (Muslim & Bukhari). So open your heart to the orders and advice of Allah, and make sure that your wife and children learn how to read correctly the book of Allah.

4⃣ Charity
Allah (may He be exalted!) says, “those who spend their wealth day and night, secretly and publicly, their reward is with their lord…’

The prophet (peace be upon him) was very generous, like wind loaded with rain. Remember that Allah (may He be exalted!) will compensate you for what you spend, and that spending is a sign of having Eeman. Spending from your wealth will benefit you in your life and in the hereafter. The messenger of Allah (SAW) said, “When the son of Adam dies, his deeds will be terminated except in case of one of these three:
👉 a continual charity,

👉 a beneficial knowledge, and

👉 a pious son who prays for his father.

5⃣ Abandoning the Evil
Abandoning evil and sins is a must in Ramadan and outside Ramadan. It is the deed of the people of true faith. There is no goodness in a Muslim who doesn’t engage evil in Ramadan but as soon as Ramadan ends, he goes back to his evil deeds. Knowing that Eid is an excellent chance to wash the hearts from hatred and bad feeling, the prophet (peace be upon him) says, “It’s not allowed for a Muslim to avoid his brother over three nights. They both meet, but this turns away and that turns away, and the best of them is the one who initiates Salam”. (Bukhari)

So be better than your brother and initiate the Salam. I ask Allah (may He be exalted!) to bless us all, to accept our Ibadah, and to free us all from the hellfire. (Aameen)

And Allah knows best!

©️ Assoutudeen Prophetic Medicine Foundation (APMF)

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THE CONCEPT OF EID PRAYER

📚 The Concept of Solatul-l-Eid

Written and Compiled by: HasbiyaLlah Al Manbahiy.

📘 What’s Solatul Eid?

Eid literally means a day where people gather for celebration while in the Shari’ah of Al Islam, Eid is limited to only two day; Eidul Fitr (1st day of Shawwal) and Eidul ‘Adha (10th day of Dhul-Hijjah).

📘 What’s the ruling on Solatul Eid?

The scholars unanimously agreed that the Eid prayer is prescribed in Islam. Some of them say that it is Sunnah, some say that it is fard kifaayah (a communal obligation) and some say that it is fard ‘ayn (an individual obligation), and that not doing it is a sin. They quoted as evidence the fact that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) commanded even the virgins and women in seclusion, i.e., those who did not ordinarily come out, to attend the Eid prayer place, except that those who were menstruating should keep away from the prayer-place itself, because it is not permissible for a menstruating woman to stay in the mosque; it is permissible for her to pass through but not to stay there.

This was also the view favoured by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him).

To buttress the point of being fard ayn, if Jumu’ah and Eid fall on the same day, the Eid prayer should be held, as should Jumu’ah prayer, as it is indicated by the apparent meaning of the hadeeth of al-Nu’maan ibn Basheer which was narrated by Muslim in his Saheeh. But those who attend the Eid prayer with the imam may attend Jumu’ah if they wish, or they may pray Zuhr.

Therefore, if Eid prayer isn’t obligatory, it shouldn’t have rendered an obligatory action (praying solatul Jumuah) to be a matter of choice. This is a basic ruling in Usulu Fiqh.

📘 How is it prayed?

Eid prayer is one where the Imam attends and leads the people in praying two rak’ahs.

‘Umar Ibn Khattab (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “The prayer of al-Fitr is two rak’ahs and the prayer of al-Adha is two rak’ahs, complete and not shortened, on the tongue of your Prophet, and the one who fabricates lies is doomed.”

This hadith was narrated by Ibn Khuzaymah and Imam An Nisai in his sunnah.

It was narrated that Abu Sa’eed said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to come out on the day of al-Fitr and al-Adha to the prayer place, and the first thing he would do was to offer the prayer. Narrated by al-Bukhaari: 956.

In the first rak’ah he should say Takbeerat al-ihraam (say “Allaahu akbar” to start the prayer), after which he should say six or seven more takbeers, because of the hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her), “The takbeer of al-Fitr and al-Adha is seven takbeers in the first rak’ah and five takbeers in the second, apart from the takbeer of rukoo’

This was narrated by Abu Dawood and classed as saheeh by Sheikh al-Albaani

Then he should recite al-Faatihah, and recite Soorat Qaf in the first rak’ah. In the second rak’ah he should stand up saying takbeer, and when he has stood up completely he should say takbeer five times, and recite Soorat al-Faatihah then Soorat al-Qamar. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to recite these two soorahs during the two Eids. Or if he wishes he can recite Soorat al-A’la in the first rak’ah and Soorat al-Ghaashiyah in the second, because it was narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to recite al-A’la and al-Ghaashiyah in the Eid prayer.

The Imam should revive the Sunnah be reciting these soorahs so that the Muslims will become familiar with the Sunnah.

After the prayer, the imam should address the people. Part of the khutbah should be addressed specifically to the women, telling them of the things that they should do and warning them against the things that they should avoid, as the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to do. Because it was reported that the Messenger of Allah will adress the women separately after addressing the men.

The Khutubah would come after the prayer as opposed its position in Solatul Jumuah. Abu Sa’eed (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to come out to the prayer place on the day of al-Fitr and al-Adha, and the first thing he would start with was the prayer, then he would go and stand facing the people, while the people were sitting in their rows, and he would preach to them and advise them and command them. If he wanted to send out a military expedition he would do so and if he wanted to tell the people to do something he would do so, then he would leave.

📘 What are the etiquettes to be observed on or before the day of Eid?

1⃣It is highly encouraged to recite takbeer during the night of Eid from sunset on the last day of Ramadaan until the imam comes to lead the prayer. Any of the two prescribed takbeers can be used :

Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, laa iLaaha ill-Allaah, Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, wa Lillaahi’l-hamd (Allaah is Most Great, Allaah is Most Great, Allaah is Most Great, there is no god except Allaah, Allaah is Most Great, Allaah is Most Great , Allaah is Most Great, and all praise be to Allaah).

Or you say :

Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, laa ilaaha ill-Allaah, Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, wa Lillaahi’l-hamd (Allaah is Most Great, Allaah is Most Great, there is no god except Allaah, Allaah is Most Great, Allaah is Most Great, and all praise be to Allaah).

2⃣ The men should wear their best dress and the women should also appear decent but not in flashy dress that will attract the men. It is forbidden for them to wear perfume or cosmetics.

3⃣ It’s encouraged to perform ritual bath as we do for the day of Jumuah. Some reports have it that some of the pious predecessors used to observe Ghusl on the day of Eid.

4⃣ Eating odd number of dates before setting out for Eidul Fitr prayer is encouraged as this has been reported from the Messenger of Allah.

5⃣ One of the rulings on the day of Eid – Eid al-Fitr – is that Zakaat al-Fitr is due on this day. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) enjoined that it should be paid before the Eid prayer. It is permissible to pay it one or two days before that, because of the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) which was narrated by al-Bukhaari: “They used to give it one or two days before (Eid) al-Fitr.” If it is paid after the Eid prayer, it does not count as Sadaqat al-Fitr, because of the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Abbaas: “Whoever pays it before the prayer, it is Zakaat al-Fitr, and whoever pays it after the prayer, it is ordinary charity.”

6⃣ Taking different route while going and coming from the prayer ground. Jabir bin Abdullah narrated that: On the day of Eid, the Prophet used to return (after offering the Eid prayer) through a way different from that by which he went. Narrated by Imam Al Bukhari.

📘 Ruling on offering Eid prayer at home because of this current pandemic

Firstly, there are different of opinions of scholars on whoever missed the Eid prayer for a reason. They differed on the number of rakahs he should made and if they have to make khutubah for it if they are many.

Al-Muzni narrated from al-Shaafa’i (may Allah have mercy on him) in Mukhtasar al-Umm: He may offer the Eid prayer on his own in his house, as may the traveller, the slave and the woman.

Ibn Qudaamah said in al-Mughni (Hanbali): He has the choice: if he wishes he may pray it on his own, and if he wishes he may pray it in congregation.

In summary, if a person misses it and wants to make it up, it is mustahabb for him to do that, so he should pray it in the proper manner but without a khutbah following it. This is the view of Imam Maalik, al-Shaafa’i, Ahmad, al-Nakha’i and other scholars. The basic principle concerning that is the words of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him): “If you come to the prayer then come walking, calmly and with dignity. Whatever you catch up with, pray, and whatever you miss, make it up.”

That being said, can we say praying Eid at home because of the current pandemic falls under the same ruling of someone who miss the Eid?

Shaykh ‘Abd ar-Rahmaan al-Barraak has issued a fatwa stating that if it is not possible to offer the Eid prayer in any land because of the epidemic and lockdown, then the ruling is the same ruling as applies to one who misses the Eid prayer. So this prayer may be offered at home without a khutbah.

He (may Allah preserve him) says:

If it is not possible to hold the Eid prayers because of some impediments, as it’s the case at present, then the ruling on that is the same as the ruling on one who misses this prayer – meaning the Eid prayer.

There are several scholarly views concerning that. Some said that he should offer this prayer with two rak‘ahs, and others said that it should be four rakahs. And some said that it should be offered in the usual manner, which is the correct view. What that means is that it should be offered with two rak‘ahs and the extra takbeeraat, the recitation should be done out loud, and there should be no khutbah, as it’s the case with every act of worship that is being made up: it should be made up in the manner in which it is usually done, and it may be offered individually or in congregation.

The evidence for that is what Anas ibn Maalik (may Allah be pleased with him) used to do. If he missed the Eid prayer, he would gather his family and his sons, then his freed slave ‘Abdullah ibn Abi ‘Utbah would lead them in praying two rak‘ahs, saying the takbeeraat, like the prayer and takbeeraat of the people of the city.

With regard to the view that the Eid prayer cannot be made up, that is not applicable in this case, because in the current situation the Eid prayer cannot be offered in the first place, so the obligation to offer it has not been carried out. Rather in this situation we may draw an analogy for the Eid prayer with the one who missed it, as noted above. And Allah knows best.

End of Shaykh quote.

In conclusion, many scholars are of the view that Solatul Eid can be prayed at home either individually or in congregation owing to a valid reason as it’s in the case of this current pandemic.

We beseech Allah to wipe away this virus from the earth and forgive us all our shortcomings. He’s the only One with absolute power over His creations.

And Allah knows best

©️ Assoutudeen Prophetic Medicine Foundation

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ZAKATUL-L-FITR

ZAKAATUL-FITR ( ﺯﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ )

Written & Compiled by: Assoutudeen Abu Mubāshīr
Website: thepropheticmedicine.com.ng
E-mail: propheticmedicineng@gmail.com

🍿 Zakaatul-Fitr is charity given to the poor at the end of the fasting period in the Islamic holy month of Ramadan. The Arabic word Fitr (ﻓﻄﺮ) means the same as iftar (ﺍﻓﻄﺎﺭ), breaking a fast, and it comes from the same root word as Futoor ( ﻓﻄﻮﺭ ) which means breakfast.

It is a duty which is compulsory (ﻭﺍﺟﺐ) upon every Muslim, whether male or female, minor or adult as long as he or she has the means to do so. It is incumbent on every free Muslim who possesses one sa’ (ﺻﺎﻉ) of dates or barley which is not needed as a basic food for himself or his family for the duration of one day and night. Every free Muslim must pay zakat ul-fitr for himself, his wife, children, and servants.

It was made obligatory in the month of Sha’ban in the second year of the hijrah. Its purpose is to purify one who fasts from any indecent act or speech and to help the poor and needy.

Meanwhile, the significant role played by Zakat in the circulation of wealth within the Islamic society is also played by the Sadaqat al-Fitr . However, in the case of Sadaqat al-Fitr, each individual is required to calculate how much charity is due from himself and his dependents and go into the community in order to find those who deserve such charity. Thus, Sadaqat al-Fitr plays a very important role in the development of the bonds of community.

🍿 When Zakat ul-Fitr is Due

Zakat al-Fitr is only Wajib for a particular period of time. If one misses the time, it cannot be made up. It is accepted as zakah for the person who pays it before the ‘eid salah, and it is sadaqah for the one who pays it after the salah.

This form of charity becomes obligatory from sunset on the last day of fasting and remains obligatory until the beginning of Eid Prayer (i.e shortly after sunrise on the following day). However, it can be paid prior to the above-mentioned period, as many of the Sahabah (companions of the Prophet) used to pay Sadaqah al-Fitr a couple days before theEid.

🍿 The Amount of Zakat ul-Fitr

The required amount of zakat ul-fitr is one sa’ ( ﺻﺎﻉ ) of wheat, barley, raisins, dry cottage cheese (aqit), rice, corn, or similar items considered as basic foods (qut).

The amount of Zakat is the same for everyone regardless of their different income brackets. The minimum amount is one sa(four double handfuls) of food, grain or dried fruit for each member of the family. This calculation is based on Ibn ‘Umar’s report that the Prophet made Zakat al-Fitr compulsory and payable by a sa of dried dates or a sa` of barley.

Abu Saeed al-Khudree also said, “In the Prophet’s time, we used to give it (Zakatal Fitr) as a sa of food, dried dates, barley, raisins or dried cheese”. [Bukhari- Arabic/English vol. 2, p. 340, no. 582].

According to another report, he said: When the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) was amongst us, we used to pay zakaat al-fitr on behalf of everyone, young and old, free and slave, a saa‘ of foodstuff or a saa‘ of dried yoghurt or a saa‘ of barley or a saa‘ of dates or a saa‘ of raisins.

A number of scholars interpreted “foodstuff” in this hadeeth as referring to wheat; others are of the view is that what is meant is the foodstuff of a region, no matter what it is, whether it is wheat or corn or something else.

This is the correct view, because zakaah is a means by which the rich help the poor, and the Muslim is not required to help with anything other than the staple food of his country.

Undoubtedly rice was a staple food in the land of the two Holy Sanctuaries, and it was a good and precious food, and superior to barley, which the text says is acceptable. Thus it is known that there is nothing wrong with giving rice for zakat al-fitr. End quote. ( Majmoo‘ Fataawa ash-Shaykh Ibn Baaz (14/200))

🚭 Note: one sà (صاع) = four Mudd (مد)

🍿 Those Who Are Entitled To Receive Zakaatul Fitri

The recipients of Zakaatul fitri are the same sets of people who are eligible to receive the real Zakaat according to the scholars. Allah (may He be exalted) says;

إِنَّمَا ٱلصَّدَقَٰتُ لِلْفُقَرَآءِ وَٱلْمَسَٰكِينِ وَٱلْعَٰمِلِينَ عَلَيْهَا وَٱلْمُؤَلَّفَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَفِى ٱلرِّقَابِ وَٱلْغَٰرِمِينَ وَفِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَٱبْنِ ٱلسَّبِيلِۖ فَرِيضَةً مِّنَ ٱللَّهِۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ

Zakah expenditures are only for the poor and for the needy and for those employed to collect [zakah] and for bringing hearts together [for Islam] and for freeing captives [or slaves] and for those in debt and for the cause of Allah and for the [stranded] traveler – an obligation [imposed] by Allah . And Allah is Knowing and Wise. (Suuratul Tawbah verse 60).

From the above verse, it is evident that there are eight categories of people entitled to Zakaatul fitri in this regard. They are;

1️⃣ The (فقراء) Poor: The poor are the most set of people who’re entitled to Zakaatul fitri. Scholars have unanimously agreed upon this due to the fact that Allah Himself put them in the forefront of receiving this.

2️⃣ The (مساكين) Needy: The prophet had defined the Needy in the popular hadith narrated by Abu Hurayra that;
لَيْسَ الْمِسْكِينُ بِهَذَا الطَّوَّافِ الَّذِي يَطُوفُ عَلَى النَّاسِ فَتَرُدُّهُ اللُّقْمَةُ وَاللُّقْمَتَانِ وَالتَّمْرَةُ وَالتَّمْرَتَان .الَّذِي لَا يَجِدُ غِنًى يُغْنِيهِ وَلَا يُفْطَنُ لَهُ فَيُتَصَدَّقَ عَلَيْهِ وَلَا يَسْأَلُ النَّاسَ شَيْيًا.

The needy person is not the one who goes round the people and asks them for a mouthful or two (of meals) or a date or two. They asked, “Then who is the needy person, O Allah’s Messenger!” He said, The one who does not have enough to satisfy his needs and whose condition is not known to others, that others may give him something in charity, and who does not beg of people. (Bukhari & Muslim).

3️⃣ The task employees: These are the set of people who are legally employed to foster the easy distribution of the zakaah within their respective territories. They are entitled to it as well except if they are the family/relatives of the prophet. The Messenger of Allah says,
إِنَّ الصَّدَقَةَ لَا تَحِلُّ لِمُحَمَّدٍ وَلَا لاِلِ مُحَمَّدٍ إِنَّمَا هِيَ أَوْسَاخُ النَّاس

Verily, the alms are not allowed for Muhammad nor the relatives of Muhammad, for it is only the dirt that the people discard. Meanwhile, those who are eligible shouldn’t take more than what’s needed and expected of them in the Zakaatul fitri.

4️⃣ Al-Mu’allafatu Qulubuhum: They are those who are given alms to embrace Islam. They are the categories of people who just revert to the fold of Islam from other ‘religions’. They are given this so that their heart will be firmer in faith and become better in Islam.

5️⃣ The Riqab: According to the scholars of tafseer, the ‘Riqab’ means those slaves who make an agreement with the master to pay a certain ransom for their freedom.”

6️⃣ Al-Gharimun (the Indebted): According to the scholars, these categories of Muslims include those;
👉 who incur expenses in solving disputes between people.

👉 those who guarantee a loan that became due.

👉those debts causing financial strain to them.

👉 those whose funds do not sufficiently cover their debts.

👉 It also includes those who indulged in a sin and repented from it.

7️⃣ Those who fought in Allah’s cause: This is exclusive for the benefit of the fighters in Jihad, who do not receive compensation from the Muslim Treasury or any set of people in similar category.

8️⃣ Ibn As-Sabil (Wayfarer): Ibn As-Sabil is a term used for the needy traveler in a land, where he does not have what helps him continue his trip. This type has a share in the Zakah and Zakaatul fitri for what suffices him to reach his destination, even if he had money there.

Summarily, these categories of people are all entitled to Zakaatul fitri except stated otherwise as regards the Shariah rulings in special conditions. This is to make everyone happy on eid day no matter the circumstance. May almighty Allah blot out this pandemic soonest and return us all back to our various masaajids. (Aameen)

And Allah knows best!

©️ Assoutudeen Prophetic Medicine Foundation (APMF)

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THE CONCEPT OF I’TIKAAF

INTRODUCTION TO I’TIKAAF ( ﺍﻋﺘﻜﺎﻑ )

Written and Compiled by; Assoutudeen Abu Mubaashir!
Website: thepropheticmedicine.com.ng
E-mail: propheticmedicineng@gmail.com

I’tikaaf refers to going into seclusion in the mosque for the sole purpose of worshipping Allah and attaching oneself and one’s heart to His worship for a certain number of days, and staying away from worldly affairs. A person observing I’tikaf ( ﻣﻌﺘﻜﻒ ) is expected to stay in a mosque for the duration of the I’tikaaf (except for certain things as described below in the prophetic sayings:

📘 Aa’ishah reported that when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) observed I’tikaf, he did not enter the house except to relieve himself. Narrated by Muslim (297).

Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said: The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used not to enter the house except for things that a person needs when he was observing I’tikaf. [Al-Bukhari (2092) and Muslim (297)]

Ibn Qudaamah (may Allah have mercy on him) said that what is meant by things that a person needs is to urinate and defecate, because every person need to do that.

Similarly, he also needs to eat and drink. If he does not have anyone who can bring him food and drink, then he may go out to get them if he needs to. For everything that he cannot do without and cannot do in the mosque, he may go out for that purpose, and that does not invalidate his I’tikaf, so long as he does not take a long time doing it. (al-Mughni (4/466)

TYPES OF I’TIKAAF

I’tikaf is of two types: sunnah and obligatory.

1⃣ The sunnah i’tikaf is that which the Muslim performs to get closer to Allah by following the actions of the Prophet, upon whom be peace, especially during the last ten days of Ramadan.

2⃣ The obligatory i’tikaf is that which the person makes obligatory upon himself. This may be done, for example, by an oath: “For Allah I must make i’tikaf,” or by a conditional oath: “If Allah cures me, I shall make i’tikaf …”

In Sahih al-Bukhari it is reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: _”Whoever makes an oath to obey Allah should be obedient to Him.” ‘Umar said: “O Messenger of Allah, I made an oath to perform i’tikaaf one night in the mosque at Makkah.” The Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: “Fulfill your oath.”

THE MOSQUES IN WHICH I’HTIKAAF IS TO PERFORMED

There is a difference of opinion among the jurists concerning which mosques are acceptable for itikaf. According to Abu Hanifah, Ahmad, Ishaq, and At- Thawr, itikaf is valid in any mosque in which the five prayers are held and which has a congregation. This is based on the hadith of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him): “Every mosque that has a caller to prayer and an imam is acceptable for i`tikaf .” (Ad-Daraqutni)

Imam Malik, ash-Shafii, and Dawud say that it is acceptable in any mosque, as there is no proof that restricts it to any particular mosque. The Shafi followers say it is better to perform itikaf in a Jami mosque (in which the Jumah prayer is performed), as the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) performed itikaf in such a mosque, and because the number of those who attend the prayers in such a mosque is greater. If the period of itikaf includes the time for the Jumah prayer, then one must perform it in the Jamimosque in order not to miss the Jumah prayer.

WHEN TO ENTER AND EXIT FROM I’TIKAAF

Entering
With regard to entering the place of i’tikaaf, the majority of scholars (including the four imams Abu Haneefah, Maalik, al-Shaafa’i and Ahmad, may Allaah have mercy on them) are of the view that the one who wants to observe i’tikaaf during the last ten days of Ramadaan should enter his place of i’tikaaf before the sun sets on the night of the twenty-first. They quoted several texts as evidence, including the following:

1⃣ It was proven that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to observe i’tikaaf during the last ten nights of Ramadaan (Agreed upon)

This indicates that the period of i’tikaaf is counted by the nights, not the days. Based on this, he should enter the mosque before the sun sets on the night of the twenty-first.

2⃣ They (the scholars) said that one of the greatest aims of i’tikaaf is to seek Laylat al-Qadr, and the night of the twenty-first is one of the odd-numbered nights in the last ten nights of Ramadaan, so it may possibly be Laylat al-Qadr, so he should be observing i’tikaaf on that night.

However, al-Bukhaari (2041) and Muslim (1173) narrated that ‘Aa’ishah said: When the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) wanted to observe i’tikaaf, he would pray Fajr then enter his place of i’tikaaf.

Scholars have interpreted this hadeeth that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had started i’tikaaf before the sun set, but he did not enter the place for i’tikaaf until after Fajr prayer.

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen said: The majority of scholars are of the view that i’tikaaf should begin on the night of the twenty first, not from Fajr of the twenty-first, although some of the scholars are of the view that i’tikaaf should begin from Fajr of the twenty-first, based on the hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) that was narrated by al-Bukhaari: “When he had prayed Fajr he entered his place of i’tikaaf”. But the majority of scholars responded by stating that the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) withdrew from people in the morning, but the intention to observe i’tikaaf was formed at the beginning of the night, because the last ten nights start when the sun sets on the twentieth.

EXIT FROM I’TIKAÀF
The period of i’tikaaf during the (last) ten nights of Ramadaan ends when the sun sets on the last day of the month. If the mu’takif (ﻣﻌﺘﻜﻒ) chooses to stay until he has prayed Fajr and then depart from his place of i’tikaaf to the Eid prayer, there is nothing wrong with that. Some of the scholars regarded that as mustahabb.
Imam Maalik (may Allaah be pleased with him) said that he saw that some of the scholars who had observed i’tikaaf during the last ten nights of Ramadaan did not go back to their families until they had attended the (prayer of Eid) al-Fitr with the people. Maalik said: I heard that from the righteous people who have passed on, and this is the dearest to me of what I have heard about that.

Al-Shaafa’i and his companions said: Whoever would like to follow the example of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) in observing i’tikaaf during the last ten nights of Ramadaan should enter the mosque before the sun sets on the night of the twenty-first, so that he will not miss any of it, and he should come out after the sun sets on the night of Eid, whether the month is twenty-nine days or thirty. It is better for him to stay in the mosque on the night of Eid so that he can offer the Eid prayer there, or go out to the Eid prayer-place if they pray Eid there. If he goes directly from i’tikaaf to the Eid prayer, it is mustahabb for him to do ghusl and make himself look good before going out, because this is one of the Sunnahs of Eid.

BASIC GOALS OF I’TIKAAF

📘Al-Imam Muslim narrated that Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri (may Allaah be pleased with him) said:

The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) observed i’tikaaf during the first ten days of Ramadaan, then he observed i’tikaaf during the middle ten days in a small tent at the door of which was a red mat. He took the mat in his hand and lifted it. Then he put his head out and spoke to the people, and they came close to him. He said: “I observed i’tikaaf during the first ten days seeking this night, then I observed i’tikaaf during the middle ten days. Then someone came and said to me that it is in the last ten days, so whoever among you wishes to observe i’tikaaf let him do so.” So the people observed i’tikaaf with him.

This hadeeth teaches us a number of things:

1⃣- That the basic goal of the i’tikaaf of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was to seek Laylat al-Qadr and to prepare to spend that night in worship. That is because of the great virtue of that night of which Allaah says:

Surah Al-Qadr, Verse 3:

ﻟَﻴْﻠَﺔُ ﺍﻟْﻘَﺪْﺭِ ﺧَﻴْﺮٌ ﻣِّﻦْ ﺃَﻟْﻒِ ﺷَﻬْﺮٍ

The night of Al-Qadr (Decree) is better than a thousand months (i.e. worshipping Allah in that night is better than worshipping Him a thousand months, (i.e. 83 years and 4 months).

2⃣- The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) strove to seek that night before he was told when it is. So he started with the first ten days, then he observed it during the middle ten, then he continued to observe i’tikaaf during the last ten days, when he was told that it is in the last ten days. This is the utmost effort to seek Laylat al-Qadr.

3⃣- The Sahaabah (may Allaah be pleased with them) followed the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), because they started i’tikaaf and continued with him until the end of the month, because they were so keen to follow his example.

4⃣- The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was compassionate towards his companions and showed mercy to them, because he knew that i’tikaaf was difficult for them. So he gave them the choice between staying with him or of leaving, and said: “…so whoever among you wishes to observe i’tikaaf let him do so.”

Other aims of itikaaf

1⃣- Being alone with Allaah and cutting oneself off from people if possible, so that one may focus completely on Allaah.

2⃣- Renewing oneself spiritually by focusing totally on Allaah.

3⃣- Cutting oneself off completely in order to worship Allaah with prayer, du’aa’, dhikr and reading Qur’aan.

4⃣- Protecting one’s fast from everything that may affect it of whims and desires.

5⃣- Reducing permissible worldly pleasures and refraining from many of them even though one is able to enjoy them.

PERMISSIBLE ACTS FOR THE MU’TAKIF

The following acts are permissible for one who is making i’tikaf:

1⃣ The person may leave his place of i’tikaaf to bid farewell to his wife

Safiyyah bint Huyàae reported: “The Prophet was performing i’tikaaf and I went to visit him during the night. I talked to him and then I got up to go. He got up with me and accompanied me to my house. (Her residence was in the house of Usamah ibn Zaid. Two men of the Ansar passed by them and when they saw the Prophet they quickened their pace.) The Prophet said: ‘Hold on, she is Safiyyah bint Hayayee.’ They said: ‘Glory be to Allah, O Messenger of Allah, we did not have any doubt about you].’ The Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: ‘Satan flows in the person like blood. I feared that he might have whispered some [slander] into your heart.'” This is related by al-Bukhari, Muslim, and Abu Dawud.

2⃣ Combing and cutting one’s hair, clipping one’s nails, cleaning one’s body, wearing nice clothes or wearing perfume

‘Aishah reported: “The Prophet was performing i’tikaaf and he would put his head out through the opening to my room and I would clean [or comb in one narration] his hair. I was menstruating at the time.” This is related by al-Bukhari, Muslim, and Abu Dawud.

3⃣ The person may go out for some need that he must perform

‘Aishah reported: “When the Prophet performed i’tikaaf, he brought his head close to me so I could comb his hair, and he would not enter the house except to fulfill the needs a person has.” This is related by al-Bukhari, Muslim, and others.

Ibn al-Munzhir says: “The scholars agree that the one who performs i’tikaaf may leave the mosque in order to answer the call of nature, for this is something that he personally must perform, and he cannot do it in the mosque. Also, if he needs to eat or drink and there is no one to bring him his food, he may leave to get it. If one needs to vomit, he may leave the mosque to do so. For anything that he must do but cannot do in the mosque, he can leave it, and such acts will not void his i’tikaf, even if they take a long time. Examples of these types of acts would include washing one’s self from sexual defilement and cleaning his body or clothes from impurities.”

4⃣. The person may eat, drink, and sleep in the mosque, and he should also keep it clean. He may make contracts for marriage if need be but must be out of sincerity, buying, selling, and so on are also reasonably allowed by the scholars.

Meanwhile, In this current (pandemic) situation where observing normal and compulsory solaah in congregation isn’t welcomed, observing iitikaaf in such standard masaajids may not be allowed as well as emphasized by some sets of scholars. We hope and expect that Allah will reward those who are used to observing iitikaāf before this pandemic in totality if they leave going to masjids to perform iitikaaf for His sake only. Therefore we enjoined us to increase in our Qur’an recitation most especially at the last ten nights of Ramadhan, observe unlimited nawaafil and other acts of worship even when we are not allowed to observe iitikaaf in our various standard mosques. May almighty Allah never deny us the complete reward in both worlds. (Aameen).

And Allah knows best!

©️ Assoutudeen Prophetic Medicine Foundation (APMF)

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THE MYTH SURROUNDING TWO MONTHS FASTING AS AN EXPIATION FOR BREAKING A FAST INTENTIONALLY

THE EXPIATION (FASTING FOR TWO MONTHS) FOR INTENTIONALLY BREAKING FAST IN RAMADAN; AN ERRONEOUS BELIEF

Written and Compiled by;
Assoutudeen Abu Mubaashir!

Website: thepropheticmedicine.com.ng
E-mail: propheticmedicineng@gmail.com

Islam is a religion free from ignorance and it’s built on knowledge. It is always based on direct evidence from the Kitab and Sunnah in which all other judgements are being passed upon. It is baseless and erroneous to pass judgement out of self-desire and ignorance without full knowledge on a matter regarding the deen of Allah, most especially in this blessed month of Ramadan concerning fasting.

As it has been explained in our previous write-ups on what really invalidate our fast which is no more a news to a conscious Muslim that there are seven major things that break the fast. Other actions are subservient to the listed actions as follow:

1⃣ Intercourse
2⃣ Masturbation
3⃣ Eating and drinking
4⃣ Anything that is regarded as coming under the same heading as eating and drinking
5⃣ Letting blood by means of cupping and its likes
6⃣ Vomiting deliberately
7⃣ Menstruation and postnatal bleeding

The first of these things that invalidate the fast is intercourse. This is the most serious and the most sinful of the things that invalidate the fast. Whoever (A man or a woman) has intercourse during the day in Ramadaan deliberately and out of his or her own freewill, in which the two circumcised parts meet and the tip of the manhood disappears in either of the two passages, has invalidated his fast, whether he ejaculates or not.

He and his wife have to repent, complete that day (i.e., not eat or drink until sunset), make up that day’s fast later on and offer a severe expiation. The evidence for that is the hadeeth narrated by Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: A man came to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and said, “I am doomed, O Messenger of Allaah!” He said, “Why are you doomed?” He said, “I had intercourse with my wife (during the day) in Ramadaan.” He said, “Can you free a slave?” He said, “No.” He said, “Can you fast for two consecutive months?” He said, “No.” He said, “Can you feed sixty poor persons?” He said, “No.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1936; Muslim, 1111)

With regards to this hadith, scholars of Islam have talked extensively on the fact that the claim for any of the things that can invalidate fast outside intercourse will not required expiation.

No expiation is required for any of the things that break the fast apart from intercourse. Saying whoever breaks his fast with food or drink or anything else beside sex will repay it with 2 months fasting is baseless as far as fiqh of fasting is concerned.

Al-Imam As-sa’diy said and commented on the above hadith that
ومن أفطر فعليه القضاء، إذا كان فطره بأكل، أو بشرب أو قيء، عمدا أو حجامة أو إمناء بمباشرة، إلا من أفطر بجماع فإنه يقضي ويعنق رقبة ، فإن لم يجد فصيام شهرين متتابعين، فإن لم يستطع فإطعام ستين مسكينا

Whoever break his fast will only repay it once even if He breaks it with food or drink or vomiting intentionally or with cupping or masturbation. Except the one who break his fast with sexual intercourse, He will have to free a slave if he doesn’t have the capability, He will have to fast for two consecutive months, if he can’t do that, He will have to feed sixty poors.
(منهج السالكين وتوضيح الفقه في الدين لشيخ الامام السعدي)

The inference from the scholar in the aforementioned hadith is that the prophet commanded him to choose one ( though in consecutive order) among the three things in which fasting for two months is among them. It directly means that it is not compulsory to fast for two consecutive months when the offender can observe the first expiation. If he can’t then first option, fasting for two consecutive months holds before the third option.

Summarily, this made it clear that fasting for two months is ONLY for the offenders who break their fast with intercourse (and doesn’t have the ability to observe freeing a slave or feeding 60 poor people) and not that of the general and erroneous ideology.

⚠ EVILS OF BREAKING FAST INTENTIONALLY WITHOUT ANY RECOGNISED CONSTRAINT

Firstly, in the land of the Shariah where the laws of Allah are being implemented fully, as for a Muslim who deliberately does not fast in Ramadan, thinking it is permissible to do so, he has become a disbeliever. He should be asked to repent, and if he repents, all well and good, otherwise he is to be executed. This is the view of majority of the scholars.

Meanwhile, whoever openly breaks the fast should be given a disciplinary punishment by the ruler, a punishment that will deter him and others like him from doing this grave act.

There is a number of comments by the scholars concerning that;

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said: If a person breaks the fast in Ramadan, believing that to be permissible although he is aware of the prohibition on doing so, but he thinks that it is permissible for him, he must be executed.

He continues, If he is an evildoer, he should be punished for breaking the fast of Ramadan, as the ruler sees fit. If he is ignorant, he is to be taught the ruling.(al-Fataawa al-Kubra (2/473) )

Ibn Hajar al-Haytami (may Allah have mercy on him) said: It is one of the major sins not fasting one of the days of Ramadan, and breaking the fast by having intercourse or otherwise, with no excuse such as sickness or travelling.(az-Zawaajir (1/323)).

The scholars of the standing committee for issuing Fatwas said: Breaking the fast during the day in Ramadan on the part of one who is accountable is a major sin, if it is done without a legitimate excuse.
( Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa’imah (10/357)).

Shaykh Ibn Baaz said: Whoever breaks the fast on any day in Ramadan, with no legitimate excuse, has committed a grave evil. Whoever repents, Allah will accept his repentance, so he must repent to Allah sincerely, by regretting what he has done in the past and resolving not to repeat it, and he should ask his Lord for forgiveness a great deal, and hasten to make up the day that he did not fast. (Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa’imah (10/357)).

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) was asked about the ruling on breaking the fast during the day in Ramadan with no excuse.

He replied: Breaking the fast during the day in Ramadan with no excuse is a major sin, and the individual becomes an evildoer thereby. He must repent to Allah and make up the day that he did not fast. (Majmoo‘ Fataawa wa Rasaa’il al’Uthaymeen (19/89)).

An-Nasaa’i narrated in al-Kubra (3273) that Abu Umaamah said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) say: Whilst I was sleeping, two men came to me and took hold of my arms… And he quoted the hadith, in which he said: Then they set off with me, and I saw some people hung up by their Achilles tendon, with the corners of their mouths torn and dripping with blood. I said: Who are these? He said: These are the people who used to break the fast before it was permissible to do so.
Sheikh Al-Albaani classed it as saheeh in as-Saheehah (3951), after which Sheikh himself said: This is the punishment of those who fasted then broke the fast before the time for breaking the fast came. So how about those who did not fast at all?! We ask Allah to keep us safe and sound in this world and the hereafter.

Conclusively, we say it isn’t permissible to break fast intentionally when there is no recognized constraint for a sane Muslim who believes in the punishment of Allah in this life, the grave and hereafter.

If the scholars most especially Ibn Taymiyya can attribute execution to someone who does that, then we should know the gravity of the sin to Allah. If you think you’re in a country where sharia isn’t practised, kindly note that the punishments of hell fire is indeed a punishment which shall be melted on evil doer like you who isn’t ready to repent. We supplicate to the uncreated Creator to grant us steadfastness and patience upon this deen so as to endure all forms of hardship that come our way as a result of our eeman. May almighty Allah grant us his forgiveness and admit us to Jannah (Aameen)

And Allah knows best.

© Assoutudeen Prophetic Medicine Foundation (APMF)

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IS CUPPING ALLOWED WHILE FASTING?

THE RULINGS ON CUPPING (HIJAAMA) WHILE FASTING.

Written and Compiled by;
Assoutudeen Abu Mubaashir

This is a write-up written to corroborate our previous articles on those actions that invalidate one’s fast during Ramadan, in which cupping was categorically stated not to be permissible. We result to explain deeper that there are different opinions among the scholars concerning its permissibility.

Firstly, it was stated in the hadeeth of Shaddad and Raafa’i ibn Khadij (two sahabas) that the Prophet(Peace be upon him) as saying
“أفطر الحاجم والمحجوم”
‘A man who cups and the one who is being cupped break their fast’

(Abu Dawood, 2367, Ibn Maajah 1676, Classed as Saheeh by Albani.)

Secondly, it was narrated by Ibn Abàas that
احْتَجَمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ وَهُوَ صَائِمٌ مُحْرِمٌ ‏”.‏”
It was narrated by Ibn Abbas that he saw the prophet: “ The prophet Muhammed (pbuh) did cupping and he was fasting and in Ihram”

(Bukhari 5:665, Ibn Majah 7:1752, Abi Dawud 2373, Tirmidhi 777)

Looking critically at these two authentic ahadith, we will see that they seem to undoubtedly contradict each other. Then the question is what has the scholars got to say on these two ahadith❓

In Islam, understanding the statement of Allah and the Prophet is very paramount to our religious affairs. Difference of opinions among the scholars concerning an issue most especially on fiqh might be a blessing of knowledge for this Ummah.

The first opinion was based on the first quoted hadith which clearly means that Cupping breaks your fast! This opinion was chosen by Ibn Taymiyah, his student Ibn Qayyum as well as other scholars such as Ibn Mundthir, Ibn Khuzayma, Al-Awza’i, Al Darmi, Ishaaq and is the opinion of the Imam Hanbali and his madhab. (Check Al-mugni vol.2 and Zàadul Màad)

Ibn Taymiyah supports this opinion also because, if the removal of blood in cupping is similar to other instances where something related to that is removed and the fast is broken such as menses & ejaculation, then cupping itself could break the fast.

Consequently, the second hadith is taken by the majority of scholars and they hold the opinion that Cupping whilst fasting does not break your fast because there are other hadeeth apart from the quoted one supporting that sahaba would have cupping even whilst fasting:
وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، أَنَّ سَعْدَ بْنَ أَبِي وَقَّاصٍ، وَعَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عُمَرَ، كَانَا يَحْتَجِمَانِ وَهُمَا صَائِمَانِ
“Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab that Sad ibn Abi Waqqas and Abdullah ibn Umar used to be cupped while they were fasting (Muwatta Malik 18:665)

In another hadith reported by Imam Bukhari himself,
حَدَّثَنَا آدَمُ بْنُ أَبِي إِيَاسٍ، حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ ثَابِتًا الْبُنَانِيَّ، يَسْأَلُ أَنَسَ بْنَ مَالِكٍ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ أَكُنْتُمْ تَكْرَهُونَ الْحِجَامَةَ لِلصَّائِمِ قَالَ لاَ‏.‏ إِلاَّ مِنْ أَجْلِ الضَّعْفِ‏.‏ وَزَادَ شَبَابَةُ حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ عَلَى عَهْدِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم‏.‏
“Anas bin Malik was asked whether they disliked the cupping for a fasting person. He replied in the negative and said, “Only if it causes weakness.” (Bukhari 1940)

While understanding the concept of the first and second hadith quoted above, we reconcile them together through the scholars argumentation explained below

1⃣ Hanbalis says: The hadeeth of Shaddad is a saying of prophet, whilst the hadeeth of Ibn Abbass is an action of the prophet. It is a principle within hanbali fiqh (والقول مقدم على الفعل)
that the speech of the Prophet(pbuh) is higher ranked than the reported actions.

❌ Majority argues that: This principle is only used in cases where you are left to choose between probabilities only, but this principle should only be used in situations where there is no contradicting hadeeths present (which there are in this case), or when a hadeeth authenticity cannot be proven.

2⃣ Hanbalis says: The hadeeth of Shaddad has been narrated by more than 16 companions, it is also supported by the actions of Sahaba who would delay doing cupping until after iftar.

❌ Majority argues that: It is not clear the sahaba have delayed their cupping till after iftar due to the Prophet saying so or because they were afraid of weakness whilst fasting.

3⃣ Imam Ahmad and others said: The hadith of Ibn Abbas is wrong due to a defect in one narrator namely Qobaysa, the words “and he was fasting” was not present in the original hadeeth.

❌ Majority argues: This is the opinion of Ahmad, it has been narrated by others and also with Imam Bukhari, that this hadeeth fulfils the conditions required to be in Saheeh Bukhari.

4⃣ Hanbalis continues: That removing anything coming out from your body that may make you weak will break the fast. E.g vomiting, menses, semen.

❌ Majority argues that: This principle of analogy would indeed be correct if it was not contested with any other textual evidences which are supporting the action.

5⃣ Hanbalis says: This is not the case as we believe the Prophet was not actually fasting during this Hajj that Ibn Abbas witnessed. Even if we are to accept the words “and he was in ihram” and “he was fasting” , this linguistically can be taken as two separate subjects in a sentence, it may be that it was referring to two separate instances. i.e he did hijama during whilst in ihram or he did hijama whilst fasting. It is because of this possibility that we refute this hadeeth.

❌ Majority refutes that: The hadeeth of Shaddad is in fact abrogated and is supported by other hadeeths of Al-Nasaa’I in al-kubra and ibn Khuzaymah in his saheeh. They continue, ”We don’t hold the hadeeth of Shaddad as an opinion as we have other points which oppose this hadeeth, which allow cupping during fasting. Their points are:

👉 Shaddad said “broken fast (iftar) ” and that can mean other things like it could mean that you’ve lost the reward in the fast like in the hadeeth of the two people that were backbiting whilst fasting, it was said in the hadeeth they have “broken fast (iftar) ”, in that instance they had not technically broken their fast but in fact, lost the reward of it.

👉 Or we can even understand that it means that the fast has been weakened or closer to being broken.

Imam Nawawi who is also part of the majority says in the book Sharh madhab that the first understanding that comes from the hadeeth of Ibn Abbas and the other hadeeths is that cupping DOES NOT break your fast.

Conclusively, personally what I (Assoutudeen) can infer from the scholars’ stances is that cupping does not break fast, and that if you fear that you become weak from it then it is makrooh (disliked). This issue of weakness being makrooh is supported by Abi Dawood. He reported the Prophet Muhammed (PBUH) would carry on fasting even after iftar as a special case for himself, the Prophet did not make this haram but advised the sahabas who copied him not to do it due to them becoming weak.

Besides, we result to one Qooidah (judgement) in one of the Qowaaid (judgements) of Usuul li fiqh (principles and fundamentals of fiqh) which states that
ما حرم سدا لذريعة ابيح للمصلحة الراجحة
which means what has been generally known as greatly forbidden matters might be permissible if there is a need for it in as much as there is an evidence (Qur’an and Sunnah) to support its permissibility.

If there is a need to perform cupping (Hijaamah) while fasting such that if not done, it may lead to death, then it might be permissible to do so .

On the final note, the best opinion to me is to follow the minority among the scholars by avoiding cupping during fasting except there is exceptional need for it.

And Allah knows best!

© Assoutudeen Prophetic Medicine Foundation (APMF)

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AT-TARAWEEH

AT-TARAWEEH ( ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻭﻳﺢ)

Written & Compiled by; Assoutudeen Abu Mubaashir

Website: thepropheticmedicine.com.ng
E-mail: propheticmedicine@gmail.com

The word Taraweeh is the plural of the word ( ﺗﺮﻭﻳﺢ ) which literally means ‘to rest’. In the context of Salat At-Taraweeh, it means to rest between every four raka’at. Taraweeh prayers are prayed in pairs of two and it is performed only during Ramadan after ishai prayer. It is a recommended prayer ( ﺳﻨﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺤﺒﺔ ) according to scholarly consensus, and comes under the heading of night prayers ( ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻴﻞ ).

In the month of Ramadaan the believer engages in jihaadu-n-nafs (soul striving) on two fronts: during the day by fasting and during the night by praying qiyaam. Whoever combines these two types of jihad will be given reward without limit.

How Salat Al-Taraweeh Began

Once, in the holy month of Ramadan, the Prophet (Peace be upon Him ) came out of his home and led Salat At-Taraweeh. The Sahabah (May almighty Allah be pleased with them all) who were present at the time, prayed behind him in congregation. The second and the third nights, a larger number of Sahabah (may almighty Allah be pleased with them) came and performed Salat At-Taraweeh behind the Prophet (Peace be upon him). On the fourth night, a larger number of Sahabah (may almighty Allah be pleased with them) showed up in the Masjid expecting to pray this salat behind the Prophet (Peace be upon him). But, he did not come out to lead Salat At-Taraweeh that night. The Sahabah (may almighty Allah be pleased with them) waited all night. When the Prophet (Peace be upon him) finally emerged for the Fajr prayer he told them: “I knew you were waiting for me, but I did not come out to lead Salat At-Taraweeh last night because I was afraid it might become an obligation (Fard) on the Ummah which they might find difficult to fulfill.” (Bukhari, h872; Muslim, h1271; Abu Dawood, h1166).

In other words, if it were made obligatory like the rest of the five daily prayers, we would have to perform it even if we were traveling or ill. Since, then, Sahabah started to perform Salat Al-Taraweeh in small congregations in the Masjid or in their homes.

Virtues of Taraweeh

1⃣ Al-Bukhaari (37) and Muslim (759) narrated from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

“Whoever prays qiyaam in Ramadaan out of faith and in the hope of reward, his previous sins will be forgiven.”

“Out of faith” means, believing in Allaah’s promise of reward.

“And in the hope of reward” means, seeking the reward and with no other intention such as showing off etc.

“Will be forgiven his previous sins”: An-Nawawi said: What is known among the fuqaha’ is that this applies only to forgiveness of minor sins, not major sins. In order for major sins to be forgiven, a person is required to make sincere repentance.

2⃣ Al-Tirmidhi (806) narrated that Abu Dharr said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever prays qiyaam with the imam until he finishes, will be recorded as having spent the whole night in prayer.” Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh at-Tirmidhi.

It is recommended to pray qiyaam al-layl in Ramadaan in congregation, and to stay with the imam until he finishes praying. In this way the worshipper will attain the reward for praying the whole night, even if he only spends a short part of the night in prayer.

Meanwhile, At this time of pandemic (covid-19), praying at home will also suffice as the same reward expected behind the Imam on the normal day.

📊 NUMBER OF RAKA’AH IN TARAWEEH

There is no gainsaying about the fact that the number of raka’ah in taraweeh has been a bone of contention among muslims. The opinion on how many rakkahs should be prayed is dichotomous.

One opinion says that it should be 11(witr inclusive) one has it to be 13 while Imam Ahmad, Imam Abu Haneefah and Imam al-Shaafihi said one should pray 20. Some in which Imam Maaleek is inclusive have it to be 36.

However there is no authentic hadith to support 20 or 36. The narration which suggests twenty rak’ahs” is extremely weak ( ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺟﺪﺍ ).

📘 Abu Salamah ibn ‘Abd al-Rahmaan, asked ‘Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her): “How did the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) pray during Ramadan?” She said: “He did not pray more than eleven rak’ahs in Ramadan or at other times. He would pray four, and do not ask how beautiful and long they were, then he would pray four, and do not ask how beautiful and long they were, then he would pray three. I said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, will you sleep before you pray Witr?’ He said, ‘O ‘Aa’ishah, my eyes sleep but my heart does not.’” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1909; Muslim, 738)

📘 ‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to pray eleven rak’ahs at night, and say the tasleem after each two rak’ahs, and he would pray Witr with one rak’ah. Saheeh, (agreed upon)

They said: This hadeeth indicates that the Messenger of Allaah was consistent in his prayers at night in Ramadaan and at other times.

The scholars refuted this use of the hadeeth as evidence by saying that this is what the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did, but the fact that he did something does not imply that it is obligatory. Many of the scholars reach to the opinion that there is no specific number of prayers at night which include Taraaweeh.

📘 The evidence they use is the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Umar according to which a man asked the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) about prayer at night. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Prayers at night are to be offered two by two (two rak’ahs at a time). If any of you fears that the time of dawn is approaching then let him pray one rak’ah as Witr.”
(Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 846; Muslim, 749)

Al-Suyooti said: What is narrated in the saheeh and hasan ahaadeeth is the command to observe night prayers during Ramadaan, which is encouraged without specifying a particular number. It is not proven that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) prayed twenty rak’ahs of Taraaweeh, rather that he prayed at night, with an unspecified number of rak’ahs. Then he delayed it on the fourth night lest it become obligatory for them and they might not be able to do it.

Ibn Hajar al-Haythami said: There is no saheeh report that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) prayed twenty rak’ahs of Taraaweeh.
(Al-Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah, 27/142-145 )

It is important to state here that taraweeh is also qiyaamul-layl, just that people used to called the Qiyaamul-l-layl in Ramadan Taroweeh. It is called taraweeh because Salaf used to rest ( ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺡ ) after every two or four rak’ahs, because they made their prayers long in order to make the most of this season of great reward.

🎙 What is Recited in the Taraweeh Prayer

The Taraweeh prayer is prayed two rakahs at a time and the prayer is a loudly prayed rather than a quite one. Thus, pray 2 rakahs and then another 2 rakahs and then another 2 rakahs and then another 2 rakahs and then finally 3 rakahs of witr prayer.

It is of no doubt that it’s meritorious to recite the Qur’an chronologically in the taroweeh prayer. There are 30 Ajzaa in the Qur’an, you can read one per day to complete a whole Qur’an in this holy month.

📘 In the account of Hudhayfah ibn al-Yamaan praying behind the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), in one rakah he recited al-Baqarah, al-Nisa’ and Aal ‘Imraan, and he recited them in a slow and measured tone. It is proven with the soundest of isnaads that when ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) appointed Ubayy ibn Ka’b to lead the people in praying eleven rakahs in Ramadan, Ubayy used to recite aayaat by the hundreds, so that the people behind him would be leaning on sticks because the prayers were so long, and they did not finish until just before Fajr. We therefore encourage our brothers most especially the Youths to observe their Taraaweeh with long recitation of Quran and not to feel lazy even if they observe it on individual basis because of this pandemic (covid-19) for this may be the last Ramadan on earth surface. May almighty Allah grant us more of this month and accept all our Ibaadah in the course of them. (Aameen)

📊 In conclusion, we will advise you to pray what the messenger of Allah prayed (11 rakahs) and don’t go against those that are of the other views because this issue is an issue of scholarly differences. This matter shouldn’t make a conscious Muslim most especially Youths to cause unnecessary division and fitnah among the Muslims.

Indeed our beloved Sheikh, Sheikh Ibn Uthaymeen says; it grieves us deeply that we find in the Muslim ummah a group which differs concerning matters in which differences of opinion are acceptable, and they take these differences as a means to cause division. Differences within the ummah existed at the time of the Sahaabah, yet they remained united. The youth in particular and to all those who are committed to Islam must remain united, because they have enemies who are laying in wait. (Al-Sharh al-Mumti’, 4/225 )

Can Taraawiīh be prayed in Congregation during this Pandemic❓

It is of no doubt that there are two scholarly opinions on this;

For instance, Dr. Al-‘Umaysān says: I asked our Shaykh ‘Abdil Muhsin al-Abaad about the ruling of some Masājid where the people are praying standing apart to protect themselves from sickness?

He said: The prayer is invalid and they are considered individuals just as if they were praying individually. (Lesson on the book of Muwatta Imam Maalik 19/07/1441)

Secondly, One of our living Sheikh in Nigeria in person of Shaykh Abdulwahāb Ajia (may almighty Allah preserve him upon goodness) says; “There are two scholarly views on straightening the rows in Salāt. The view of wujūb (obligation) and that of istihbāb (preference). The more correct view is the former. It is obligatory to pray closing the ranks. However, given the current situation of COVID-19, those praying with spaces between each other are excused and their Salāt is valid. In places where the lockdown order is relaxed and people are allowed to go and pray in the mosques, they can pray with spaces between themselves.” (Audio lecture on lessons of Ramadhan)

Thirdly, Shaykh Sulaymān Ar-Ruhaylī was asked a similar question which he replied; It is important for us to know that the standing of worshippers in a single row even with spaces between themselves is not akin to praying lonely behind the row. Clearly, these matters are different. The basis (for congregational prayers) is that it is compulsory for followers of the Imām to close the gaps.The view of the majority of the ‘Ulamā’is that it’s a preferred act even though leaving gaps in-between each other is detested. The most sound view is that it is compulsory to close the gaps. However, if there’s an exigency necessitating standing apart, then, it is permitted to do so.Thus, we have a choice between two matters. Either we prohibit them from praying in congregation, or we say, on scholarly grounds, they should pray in congregation while standing apart. So, no problem if they will pray in congregation while standing apart. In any case, they must strictly obey the guidelines set by the authority. In this is a general benefit. It’s entirely up to those in authority. He further elaborated on his earlier position, noting that: If there’s a preponderant harm in their observing of congregational Salāt in the mosque even while standing apart, the best is to remain at home even if they weren’t ordered to stay at home. But if they pray standing apart even though there’s no harm at all, or that there won’t be any harm if they were to stand apart by a metre or half, they can pray in the mosque standing apart, in obedience of the directive of the authority.

(Explanation of lessons on fasting in the book buluugul marāam)

And Allah knows best!

©️ Assoutudeen Prophetic Medicine Foundation (APMF)

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FIQH OF FASTING

FIQH OF FASTING (فقه الصيام)

Written & Compiled by: Assoutudeen Abu Mubaashir
E-mail: propheticmedicineng@gmail.com

Website: thepropheticmedicine.com.ng

Linguistically, sawm (fasting) means to abstain from something. Legally, It means abstaining from things that break the fast, from dawn until sunset, having first made the intention (niyyah) to fast. It is the fourth pillar of Islam. One of the greatest acts of worship is fasting, which Allah has made obligatory on His slaves, as He says:

Surah Al-Baqara, Verse 183:

ﻳَﺎ ﺃَﻳُّﻬَﺎ ﺍﻟَّﺬِﻳﻦَ ﺁﻣَﻨُﻮﺍ ﻛُﺘِﺐَ ﻋَﻠَﻴْﻜُﻢُ ﺍﻟﺼِّﻴَﺎﻡُ ﻛَﻤَﺎ ﻛُﺘِﺐَ ﻋَﻠَﻰ ﺍﻟَّﺬِﻳﻦَ ﻣِﻦ ﻗَﺒْﻠِﻜُﻢْ ﻟَﻌَﻠَّﻜُﻢْ ﺗَﺘَّﻘُﻮﻥ
َ
O you who believe! fasting is prescribed for you, as it was prescribed for those before you, so that you may guard (against evil).

As the status of this act of worship is so high, it is essential to learn the rulings ( ﺍﺣﻜﺎﻡ ) that have to do with the month of fasting so that the Muslim will know what is obligatory, in order to do it, what is haraam, in order to avoid it, and what is permissible, so that he need not subject himself to hardship by depriving himself of it and have tranquility in his Ibadah.

Upon Whom is Fasting Obligatory
Fasting is obligatory for a person if he fulfils five conditions:

1- He is a Muslim

2- He is accountable ( ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻠﻒ )

3- He is able to fast

4- He is settled (not travelling)

5- There are no impediments to fasting

If these five conditions are met, then it is obligatory for a person to fast. Kaafirs are excluded from the first condition. The kaafir is not obliged to fast and his fast is not valid. Should he becomes Muslim, he is not obliged to make up fasts from before.

Those Exempted From Fasting
One of the ways in which Allaah has made things easy for His slaves is that He has only enjoined fasting upon those who are able to do it, and He has excused those who are unable to fast for a legitimate shar’i reason. The legitimate reasons for which one may be excused from fasting are as follows:
1⃣ Sickness

Sickness means everything that means that a person is not healthy. Ibn Qudaamah said: the scholars are agreed that it is permissible for the sick person not to fast in general. The basis of that is the aayah in which Allaah says:

Surah Al-Baqara, Verse 184:
ﻓَﻤَﻦ ﻛَﺎﻥَ ﻣِﻨﻜُﻢ ﻣَّﺮِﻳﻀًﺎ ﺃَﻭْ ﻋَﻠَﻰٰ ﺳَﻔَﺮٍ ﻓَﻌِﺪَّﺓٌ ﻣِّﻦْ ﺃَﻳَّﺎﻡٍ ﺃُﺧَﺮ

If any of you is ill or on a journey, the same number (should be made up) from other days.

The sick person who fears that fasting may make his sickness worse or that it will slow down his recovery or damage a part of his body, has the option of not fasting, and indeed it is Sunnah for him not to fast and it is makrooh for him to complete his fast, because that may lead to his death. So he has to be cautious and protect himself.

Moreover, if the sick person is very ill, that makes it permissible for him not to fast. But if a healthy person fears difficulty or tiredness, it is not permissible for him to break his fast, if all that happens to him when he fasts is that he becomes tired.

2⃣ Travelling
In order for traveling to result in a concession excusing one from fasting, the following conditions must be met:
a- The journey must be long enough that prayers may be shortened.

b- The traveler must not intend to settle in the place to which he travels.

c- His journey must not be for any sinful purpose, rather it should be for a sound purpose, according to the majority of scholars. That is because being allowed not to fast is a concession and relief that the sinner does not deserve on his journey, because the purpose of his journey is to commit sin – such as one who travels in order to commit banditry, for example.

Cancellation of the concession for traveling:
This concession of traveling is cancelled by two things:

(i) When the traveler returns home and enters his hometown, which is the place where he resides.

(ii) When the traveler decides to stay indefinitely, or for a lengthy period in one place, and the place is fit for settling in. Thus he becomes a resident (or non-traveller), so he should pray his prayers in full and not break his fast in Ramadaan, because the rulings on travel no longer apply to him.

3️⃣ Pregnancy and breastfeeding
The fuqaha’ are agreed that pregnant and breastfeeding women may break their fast in Ramadaan, on the condition that they think there is a risk that they or their children may become ill or more ill, or be harmed or may die.

The evidence that women in these cases are allowed not to fast is the hadeeth of Anas ibn Maalik al-Ka’bi (may Allaah be pleased with him), who said that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:
“Allaah has relieved the traveler of fasting and half of prayer, and He has relieved the pregnant and breastfeeding woman of fasting.” (Bukhari)

4️⃣ Senility and Old age
Senility or old age refers to one who is old and has lost his strength, or who is approaching death, so that every day he becomes weaker, until he dies, or who is suffering from a terminal or incurable illness and has no hope of recovery. The evidence that it is prescribed for such people not to fast is the aayah:

َ ﻭَﻋَﻠَﻰ ﺍﻟَّﺬِﻳﻦَ ﻳُﻄِﻴﻘُﻮﻧَﻪُ ﻓِﺪْﻳَﺔٌ ﻃَﻌَﺎﻡُ ﻣِﺴْﻜِﻴﻦ
ٍ
“And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g. an old man), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskeen (poor person) (for everyday)”

Ibn ‘Abbaas & Ali Ibn Abi Taalib; (may Allaah be pleased with them) said that this aayah applies to old men and old women who cannot fast, so for each day they should feed one poor person.

5️⃣ Intense hunger & thirst
If a person is overtaken by intense hunger or unbearable thirst, then he should break his fast and eat just as much as he needs to ward off that hunger, then he should refrain from eating for the rest of the day, and make up that fast later on.

The scholars added to intense hunger and thirst, the fear of weakness when meeting the enemy, or fearing or expecting an attack, such as when one is surrounded. So if a fighter knows for sure or thinks it most likely that there will be fighting because he is facing the enemy, and he fears that fasting may make him weak when fighting, and he is not traveling, then he may break his fast before fighting.

However, one must fear Allah sincerely and be very careful not to deceive himself, all the in the name of having intense hunger and unbearable thirst.

6️⃣ Compulsion
Compulsion means one person forcing another to do something or not to do something against his will, by means of threats. If that occurs such that one don’t have power to overrule it, then he may break his fast and pay later. For example, a kidnapper forcing a kidnapped Muslim to eat in the day during Ramadan. Failure to do so, it may lead to his death, then upon him is to break the fast if he isn’t capable. May almighty Allah save us from such. (Aameen)

7️⃣ Women
Those who are passing from their monthly cycles or those who are undergoing from the phase of post-childbirth, women, in such conditions are exempted from fasting and are required to compensate for the missed days afterwards.

And Allah knows best!

To be continued in shaa Allah

©️ Assoutudeen Prophetic Medicine Foundation (APMF)

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AN OVERVIEW OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN ISLAM

An Overview of Domestic Violence in Islam

Written by: HasbiyaLlah Al Manbahiy.

📙 What’s Domestic Violence ❓

According to the United States Department of Justice Office on Violence Against Women, the definition of domestic violence is a pattern of abusive behavior in any relationship that is used by one partner to gain or maintain control over another intimate partner.

Globally, the victims of domestic violence are overwhelmingly women, and women tend to experience more severe forms of violence Domestic violence often occurs when the abuser believes that abuse is an entitlement, acceptable, justified, or unlikely to be reported.

📙 Types or forms of Domestic Violence

🚷 Physical abuse can include hitting, biting, slapping, battering, shoving, punching, pulling hair, burning, cutting, pinching, etc. (any type of violent behavior inflicted on the victim).

Physical abuse also includes denying someone medical treatment and forcing drug/alcohol use on someone.

🚷 Sexual abuse occurs when the abuser coerces or attempts to coerce the victim into having sexual contact or sexual behavior without the victim’s consent. This often takes the form of marital rape, attacking sexual body parts, physical violence that is followed by forcing sex, sexually demeaning the victim, or even telling sexual jokes at the victim’s expense.

🚷 Emotional abuse involves invalidating or deflating the victim’s sense of self-worth and/or self-esteem.

Emotional abuse often takes the form of constant criticism, name-calling, injuring the victim’s relationship with his/her children, or interfering with the victim’s abilities.

🚷 Economic abuse takes place when the abuser makes or tries to make the victim financially reliant. Economic abusers often seek to maintain total control over financial resources, withhold the victims access to funds, or prohibit the victim from going to school or work.

🚷 Psychological abuse involves the abuser invoking fear through intimidation; threatening to physically hurt himself/herself, the victim, children, the victim’s family or friends, or the pets; destruction of property; injuring the pets; isolating the victim from loved ones; and prohibiting the victim from going to school or work.

Threats to hit, injure, or use a weapon are a form of psychological abuse.

🚷 Stalking abuse can include following the victim, spying, watching, harassing, showing up at the victim’s home or work, sending gifts, collecting information, making phone calls, leaving written messages, or appearing at a person’s home or workplace.

These acts individually are typically legal, but any of these behaviors done continuously results in a stalking crime.

📵 Cyberstalking abuse refers to online action or repeated emailing that inflicts substantial emotional distress in the recipient.

📙 General Islamic Perspective Regarding Domestic Violence

Islam must be considered as a whole, as a paradigm that cannot be fragmented and whose teachings cannot be analyzed in isolation.

Muslims are required to abide by the text of the Qur’an, which is accepted as the word of Allah subhanahu wá tahala, as well as the life example of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be on him).

From a holistic perspective, the verses in the Qur’an that address the creation of humankind are instrumental in understanding the Islamic position on
gender relations.

“O mankind! Reverence your guardian‐Lord, who created you from a single soul. Created, of like nature, its mate, and from them twain scattered (like seeds) countless men and women‐‐‐fear God, through Whom you demand your mutual rights, and
reverence the wombs (that bore you), for God ever watches over you.” (Qur’an 4:1).

📙The Qur’an describes the relationship between spouses as one founded on mercy, compassion, and tranquility. Another verse describes spouses as being garments for one another, emphasising the mutuality in the relationship.

Multiple verses remind men to treat women with kindness and justice, as do many teachings of the Prophet Muhammad.

Surah Al-Baqara, Verse 231:

And when you have divorced women and they have fulfilled the term of their prescribed period, either take them back on reasonable basis or set them free on reasonable basis. But do not take them back to hurt them, and whoever does that, then he has wronged himself. And treat not the Verses (Laws) of Allah as a jest, but remember Allah’s Favours on you (i.e. Islam), and that which He has sent down to you of the Book (i.e. the Quran) and Al-Hikmah (the Prophet’s Sunnah – legal ways – Islamic jurisprudence, etc.) whereby He instructs you. And fear Allah, and know that Allah is All-Aware of everything.

📙 Allah says:

Surah An-Nisa, Verse 19:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا يَحِلُّ لَكُمْ أَن تَرِثُوا النِّسَاءَ كَرْهًا وَلَا تَعْضُلُوهُنَّ لِتَذْهَبُوا بِبَعْضِ مَا آتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ إِلَّا أَن يَأْتِينَ بِفَاحِشَةٍ مُّبَيِّنَةٍ وَعَاشِرُوهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ فَإِن كَرِهْتُمُوهُنَّ فَعَسَىٰ أَن تَكْرَهُوا شَيْئًا وَيَجْعَلَ اللَّهُ فِيهِ خَيْرًا كَثِيرًا

O you who believe! You are forbidden to inherit women against their will, and you should not treat them with harshness, that you may take away part of the Mahr you have given them, unless they commit open illegal sexual intercourse. And live with them honourably. If you dislike them, it may be that you dislike a thing and Allah brings through it a great deal of good.

Surah At-Talaq, Verse 6:

أَسْكِنُوهُنَّ مِنْ حَيْثُ سَكَنتُم مِّن وُجْدِكُمْ وَلَا تُضَارُّوهُنَّ لِتُضَيِّقُوا عَلَيْهِنَّ وَإِن كُنَّ أُولَاتِ حَمْلٍ فَأَنفِقُوا عَلَيْهِنَّ حَتَّىٰ يَضَعْنَ حَمْلَهُنَّ فَإِنْ أَرْضَعْنَ لَكُمْ فَآتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ وَأْتَمِرُوا بَيْنَكُم بِمَعْرُوفٍ وَإِن تَعَاسَرْتُمْ فَسَتُرْضِعُ لَهُ أُخْرَىٰ

Lodge them (the divorced women) where you dwell, according to your means, and do not treat them in such a harmful way that they be obliged to leave. And if they are pregnant, then spend on them till they deliver. Then if they give suck to the children for you, give them their due payment, and let each of you accept the advice of the other in a just way. But if you make difficulties for one another, then some other woman may give suck for him (the father of the child).

All these are pointing to the fact that women are highly reserved and revered in Islam.

📙As far as domestic violence is concerned, it is an issue that has been dealt with from a preventive stance since the Qur’an clearly prohibits any kind of injustice or oppression.

There are verses that specifically prohibit behaviors that constitute emotional and psychological
abuse, such as spying, intimidating, name‐calling, insulting, and black‐mailing

The one verse in the Qur’an that mentions hitting one’s wife has been the subject of much attack from non‐Muslims and controversy among Muslims; it is also taken out of context and used by some abusers to justify beating their wives.

What’s the proper way to interpret the verse and a similar hadith in this regards?

📙 Is it true that the Qur’an supports beating of one’s wife ❓
There is nothing in the Qur’aan that suggests that a man is allowed to beat his wife.

The Qur’aan enjoins good treatment of one’s wife: she is to be honoured and treated kindly, even when one no longer feels love in one’s heart towards her.

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) enjoined kind treatment and honouring of one’s wife, and he described the best of people as those who are best to their wives. He said: “The best of you are those who are the best to their wives, and I am the best of you to my wives.” This was narrated by Imam Tirmidhi

Now, as regards the controversy on the Quranic verse and hadith. Allaah, may He be exalted says (interpretation of the meaning):

“As to those women on whose part you see ill‑conduct, admonish them (first), (next) refuse to share their beds, (and last) beat them (lightly, if it is useful); but if they return to obedience, seek not against them means (of annoyance). Surely, Allaah is Ever Most High, Most Great”
[al-Nisa’ 4:34]

If a woman rebels against her husband and disobeys his commands, then he should follow this method of admonishing her, forsaking her in bed and hitting her. Hitting is subject to the condition that it should not be harsh or cause injury. Al-Hasan al-Basri said: this means that it should not cause pain.

📙 The messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Fear Allaah with regard to women, for you have taken them as a trust from Allaah and intimacy with them has become permissible to you by the words of Allaah. Your right over them is that they should not allow anyone to sit on your furniture whom you dislike; if they do that then hit them but not in a harsh manner. And their right over you is that you should provide for them and clothe them on a reasonable basis.” This was narrated by Imam Muslim.

What is meant by “they should not allow anyone to sit on your furniture whom you dislike” is that they should not allow anyone whom you dislike to enter your houses, whether the person disliked is a man or a woman. The prohibition includes the woman’s mahrom too.

The hadeeth may be understood as meaning that a man has the right to hit his wife, in a manner that is not harsh and does not cause injury if if there is a reason for that, such as her going against his wishes or disobeying him.

‘Ata’ said: I said to Ibn ‘Abbaas, what is the kind of hitting that is not harsh? He said, hitting with a siwaak and the like. A siwaak is a small stick or twig used for cleaning the teeth.

The purpose behind this is not to hurt or humiliate the woman, rather it is intended to make her realize that she has transgressed against her husband’s rights, and that her husband has the right to set her straight and discipline her.

📙 Can I seek for divorce if my husband is accustomed to beating me?

The husband has to treat his wife kindly. It is not permissible for him to hit his wife in a way that causes her to bleed or hurts her. This is sinful aggression and enmity, because the basic principle is that the Muslim’s blood, honour, wealth and skin are sacred and protected, and it is not permissible to strike him or her except in cases where the Shari’ah has permitted.

If the husband continues to beat his wife in the manner mentioned, it is permissible for her to ask for a divorce so as to relieve herself of the harm this is befalling her, and it is permissible for her to tell appropriate authorities for judgment because Allah says :

Surah An-Nisa, Verse 29:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَأْكُلُوا أَمْوَالَكُم بَيْنَكُم بِالْبَاطِلِ إِلَّا أَن تَكُونَ تِجَارَةً عَن تَرَاضٍ مِّنكُمْ وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا أَنفُسَكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِكُمْ رَحِيمًا

O you who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves unjustly except it be a trade amongst you, by mutual consent. And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another). Surely, Allah is Most Merciful to you.

📙 Domestic Violence and Pregnancy.
In general, pregnancy can put a stop to domestic violence, or at least make it visible. For example, the violent partner may stop acting violently in order not to harm the fetus. Also, access to clinical care for pregnant women reduces the risk of domestic violence for pregnant women because the signs of violence can easily be detected during medical examinations.

However, pregnancy alone is not a reliable measure for protecting women against domestic violence. Indeed, there might also be a strong correlation between pregnancy, especially an unwanted one, and sexual violence. Therefore, women with unwanted pregnancies are also at an increased risk of violence compared to women with intentional pregnancies.

Pregnant women, especially those with less education, lower income, and more children who have been married longer, are more vulnerable to domestic violence. Also, regardless of certain protective factors such as visiting family doctors during pregnancy, many incidents related to domestic violence against pregnant women may also go unnoticed.

Therefore, philanthropists should specifically pay attention to women who give birth to babies with low birth weight, who miscarry, and whose infants die or have mental health problems, as they are more likely to have been subjected to violence during pregnancy.

📙 Conclusion
We should all know that domestic violence of any form has no room in Islam. We should not be deceived by the westerners and others that are trying to misinterpret the word of Allah and His messenger.

Anyone that’s not merciful is to his fellow human is unjust. He should be held responsible for such and not his or her religion ❗Enough of all the hypocritical statements and news on the media ❗Islam is a religion of peace.

I beseech Almighty Allah to let’s see good as good and to be able to follow it and let’s see bad as bad and to be able to refrain from it.

©️ Assoutudeen Prophetic Medicine Foundation (APMF)

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