Monthly Archives: May

WHAT NEXT AFTER RAMADAN?

AFTER RAMADAN, WHAT NEXT❓

Written & Compiled by; Assoutudeen Abu Mubāshīr

All praises and thanks be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds. May His Peace and Blessings be upon our Noble Prophet, Muhammad at all times.

It is still important to say to all Muslim brothers and sisters though belatedly, “Eid Fitr Mubarak”!! May Allah accept our fasting and all our righteous deeds in the most blessed month of Ramadan. Amin.

There is no gainsaying about the fact that no month is comparable to Ramadan in the life of a Muslim. That is why any sincere Muslim will always wish that Ramadan stays, or at least wishes to live the spirit of the month throughout the year. But now, Ramadan, 1441 A.H is over.

What’s after Ramadan? Do the lessons of Ramadan end with it, or continue after it? To answer this question, we shall briefly go over these lessons:

1⃣ Fasting
We’ve learned from fasting how to soften our souls, break our desires and performing the concept of Uboodiyah to Allah alone. The prophet (peace be upon him) encouraged us to fast six days during the month of Shawwal when he said, “Whoever fasts the month of Ramadan and he follows it with six days of Shawwal, it is as if he fasts the whole year”. (Bukhari)

It was the tradition of the Prophet (peace be upon him) to fast Mondays, Thursdays, three days of each lunar month, the day of Arafah, Ashourah and most of Sha’ban and Muharram.

2⃣ Praying Tahjuud
Praying at night was the habit of the Prophet (peace be upon him) throughout his life, and he used to encourage his followers to do so. He (peace be upon him) said, “Do qiyam-ul-lail, the night prayer; it used to be the good deeds of the pious people before you. It draws you closer to your Lord, it causes your sins to be forgiven, and it causes you to avoid doing bad deeds”. (Abu Dāwood)

Allah (may He be exalted!) describes his pious servants that “they used to sleep a little at night” in Surat Al-Sajdah.

3⃣ The recitation of the Quran
You must not stop reading the Quran after Ramadan, otherwise you’ll be among those whom the prophet (peace be upon him and his households) described as Allah says, “And the messenger said, ‘O my Lord! Verily my people have deserted this Quran.

And remember the advice of the Prophet(peace be upon him) when he said, “Read the Quran repeatedly, for the reason that it is easier to be released from the chests of men than the camel from its leash”. (Muslim & Bukhari). So open your heart to the orders and advice of Allah, and make sure that your wife and children learn how to read correctly the book of Allah.

4⃣ Charity
Allah (may He be exalted!) says, “those who spend their wealth day and night, secretly and publicly, their reward is with their lord…’

The prophet (peace be upon him) was very generous, like wind loaded with rain. Remember that Allah (may He be exalted!) will compensate you for what you spend, and that spending is a sign of having Eeman. Spending from your wealth will benefit you in your life and in the hereafter. The messenger of Allah (SAW) said, “When the son of Adam dies, his deeds will be terminated except in case of one of these three:
👉 a continual charity,

👉 a beneficial knowledge, and

👉 a pious son who prays for his father.

5⃣ Abandoning the Evil
Abandoning evil and sins is a must in Ramadan and outside Ramadan. It is the deed of the people of true faith. There is no goodness in a Muslim who doesn’t engage evil in Ramadan but as soon as Ramadan ends, he goes back to his evil deeds. Knowing that Eid is an excellent chance to wash the hearts from hatred and bad feeling, the prophet (peace be upon him) says, “It’s not allowed for a Muslim to avoid his brother over three nights. They both meet, but this turns away and that turns away, and the best of them is the one who initiates Salam”. (Bukhari)

So be better than your brother and initiate the Salam. I ask Allah (may He be exalted!) to bless us all, to accept our Ibadah, and to free us all from the hellfire. (Aameen)

And Allah knows best!

©️ Assoutudeen Prophetic Medicine Foundation (APMF)

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THE CONCEPT OF EID PRAYER

📚 The Concept of Solatul-l-Eid

Written and Compiled by: HasbiyaLlah Al Manbahiy.

📘 What’s Solatul Eid?

Eid literally means a day where people gather for celebration while in the Shari’ah of Al Islam, Eid is limited to only two day; Eidul Fitr (1st day of Shawwal) and Eidul ‘Adha (10th day of Dhul-Hijjah).

📘 What’s the ruling on Solatul Eid?

The scholars unanimously agreed that the Eid prayer is prescribed in Islam. Some of them say that it is Sunnah, some say that it is fard kifaayah (a communal obligation) and some say that it is fard ‘ayn (an individual obligation), and that not doing it is a sin. They quoted as evidence the fact that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) commanded even the virgins and women in seclusion, i.e., those who did not ordinarily come out, to attend the Eid prayer place, except that those who were menstruating should keep away from the prayer-place itself, because it is not permissible for a menstruating woman to stay in the mosque; it is permissible for her to pass through but not to stay there.

This was also the view favoured by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him).

To buttress the point of being fard ayn, if Jumu’ah and Eid fall on the same day, the Eid prayer should be held, as should Jumu’ah prayer, as it is indicated by the apparent meaning of the hadeeth of al-Nu’maan ibn Basheer which was narrated by Muslim in his Saheeh. But those who attend the Eid prayer with the imam may attend Jumu’ah if they wish, or they may pray Zuhr.

Therefore, if Eid prayer isn’t obligatory, it shouldn’t have rendered an obligatory action (praying solatul Jumuah) to be a matter of choice. This is a basic ruling in Usulu Fiqh.

📘 How is it prayed?

Eid prayer is one where the Imam attends and leads the people in praying two rak’ahs.

‘Umar Ibn Khattab (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “The prayer of al-Fitr is two rak’ahs and the prayer of al-Adha is two rak’ahs, complete and not shortened, on the tongue of your Prophet, and the one who fabricates lies is doomed.”

This hadith was narrated by Ibn Khuzaymah and Imam An Nisai in his sunnah.

It was narrated that Abu Sa’eed said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to come out on the day of al-Fitr and al-Adha to the prayer place, and the first thing he would do was to offer the prayer. Narrated by al-Bukhaari: 956.

In the first rak’ah he should say Takbeerat al-ihraam (say “Allaahu akbar” to start the prayer), after which he should say six or seven more takbeers, because of the hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her), “The takbeer of al-Fitr and al-Adha is seven takbeers in the first rak’ah and five takbeers in the second, apart from the takbeer of rukoo’

This was narrated by Abu Dawood and classed as saheeh by Sheikh al-Albaani

Then he should recite al-Faatihah, and recite Soorat Qaf in the first rak’ah. In the second rak’ah he should stand up saying takbeer, and when he has stood up completely he should say takbeer five times, and recite Soorat al-Faatihah then Soorat al-Qamar. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to recite these two soorahs during the two Eids. Or if he wishes he can recite Soorat al-A’la in the first rak’ah and Soorat al-Ghaashiyah in the second, because it was narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to recite al-A’la and al-Ghaashiyah in the Eid prayer.

The Imam should revive the Sunnah be reciting these soorahs so that the Muslims will become familiar with the Sunnah.

After the prayer, the imam should address the people. Part of the khutbah should be addressed specifically to the women, telling them of the things that they should do and warning them against the things that they should avoid, as the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to do. Because it was reported that the Messenger of Allah will adress the women separately after addressing the men.

The Khutubah would come after the prayer as opposed its position in Solatul Jumuah. Abu Sa’eed (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to come out to the prayer place on the day of al-Fitr and al-Adha, and the first thing he would start with was the prayer, then he would go and stand facing the people, while the people were sitting in their rows, and he would preach to them and advise them and command them. If he wanted to send out a military expedition he would do so and if he wanted to tell the people to do something he would do so, then he would leave.

📘 What are the etiquettes to be observed on or before the day of Eid?

1⃣It is highly encouraged to recite takbeer during the night of Eid from sunset on the last day of Ramadaan until the imam comes to lead the prayer. Any of the two prescribed takbeers can be used :

Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, laa iLaaha ill-Allaah, Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, wa Lillaahi’l-hamd (Allaah is Most Great, Allaah is Most Great, Allaah is Most Great, there is no god except Allaah, Allaah is Most Great, Allaah is Most Great , Allaah is Most Great, and all praise be to Allaah).

Or you say :

Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, laa ilaaha ill-Allaah, Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, wa Lillaahi’l-hamd (Allaah is Most Great, Allaah is Most Great, there is no god except Allaah, Allaah is Most Great, Allaah is Most Great, and all praise be to Allaah).

2⃣ The men should wear their best dress and the women should also appear decent but not in flashy dress that will attract the men. It is forbidden for them to wear perfume or cosmetics.

3⃣ It’s encouraged to perform ritual bath as we do for the day of Jumuah. Some reports have it that some of the pious predecessors used to observe Ghusl on the day of Eid.

4⃣ Eating odd number of dates before setting out for Eidul Fitr prayer is encouraged as this has been reported from the Messenger of Allah.

5⃣ One of the rulings on the day of Eid – Eid al-Fitr – is that Zakaat al-Fitr is due on this day. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) enjoined that it should be paid before the Eid prayer. It is permissible to pay it one or two days before that, because of the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) which was narrated by al-Bukhaari: “They used to give it one or two days before (Eid) al-Fitr.” If it is paid after the Eid prayer, it does not count as Sadaqat al-Fitr, because of the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Abbaas: “Whoever pays it before the prayer, it is Zakaat al-Fitr, and whoever pays it after the prayer, it is ordinary charity.”

6⃣ Taking different route while going and coming from the prayer ground. Jabir bin Abdullah narrated that: On the day of Eid, the Prophet used to return (after offering the Eid prayer) through a way different from that by which he went. Narrated by Imam Al Bukhari.

📘 Ruling on offering Eid prayer at home because of this current pandemic

Firstly, there are different of opinions of scholars on whoever missed the Eid prayer for a reason. They differed on the number of rakahs he should made and if they have to make khutubah for it if they are many.

Al-Muzni narrated from al-Shaafa’i (may Allah have mercy on him) in Mukhtasar al-Umm: He may offer the Eid prayer on his own in his house, as may the traveller, the slave and the woman.

Ibn Qudaamah said in al-Mughni (Hanbali): He has the choice: if he wishes he may pray it on his own, and if he wishes he may pray it in congregation.

In summary, if a person misses it and wants to make it up, it is mustahabb for him to do that, so he should pray it in the proper manner but without a khutbah following it. This is the view of Imam Maalik, al-Shaafa’i, Ahmad, al-Nakha’i and other scholars. The basic principle concerning that is the words of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him): “If you come to the prayer then come walking, calmly and with dignity. Whatever you catch up with, pray, and whatever you miss, make it up.”

That being said, can we say praying Eid at home because of the current pandemic falls under the same ruling of someone who miss the Eid?

Shaykh ‘Abd ar-Rahmaan al-Barraak has issued a fatwa stating that if it is not possible to offer the Eid prayer in any land because of the epidemic and lockdown, then the ruling is the same ruling as applies to one who misses the Eid prayer. So this prayer may be offered at home without a khutbah.

He (may Allah preserve him) says:

If it is not possible to hold the Eid prayers because of some impediments, as it’s the case at present, then the ruling on that is the same as the ruling on one who misses this prayer – meaning the Eid prayer.

There are several scholarly views concerning that. Some said that he should offer this prayer with two rak‘ahs, and others said that it should be four rakahs. And some said that it should be offered in the usual manner, which is the correct view. What that means is that it should be offered with two rak‘ahs and the extra takbeeraat, the recitation should be done out loud, and there should be no khutbah, as it’s the case with every act of worship that is being made up: it should be made up in the manner in which it is usually done, and it may be offered individually or in congregation.

The evidence for that is what Anas ibn Maalik (may Allah be pleased with him) used to do. If he missed the Eid prayer, he would gather his family and his sons, then his freed slave ‘Abdullah ibn Abi ‘Utbah would lead them in praying two rak‘ahs, saying the takbeeraat, like the prayer and takbeeraat of the people of the city.

With regard to the view that the Eid prayer cannot be made up, that is not applicable in this case, because in the current situation the Eid prayer cannot be offered in the first place, so the obligation to offer it has not been carried out. Rather in this situation we may draw an analogy for the Eid prayer with the one who missed it, as noted above. And Allah knows best.

End of Shaykh quote.

In conclusion, many scholars are of the view that Solatul Eid can be prayed at home either individually or in congregation owing to a valid reason as it’s in the case of this current pandemic.

We beseech Allah to wipe away this virus from the earth and forgive us all our shortcomings. He’s the only One with absolute power over His creations.

And Allah knows best

©️ Assoutudeen Prophetic Medicine Foundation

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ZAKATUL-L-FITR

ZAKAATUL-FITR ( ﺯﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ )

Written & Compiled by: Assoutudeen Abu Mubāshīr
Website: thepropheticmedicine.com.ng
E-mail: propheticmedicineng@gmail.com

🍿 Zakaatul-Fitr is charity given to the poor at the end of the fasting period in the Islamic holy month of Ramadan. The Arabic word Fitr (ﻓﻄﺮ) means the same as iftar (ﺍﻓﻄﺎﺭ), breaking a fast, and it comes from the same root word as Futoor ( ﻓﻄﻮﺭ ) which means breakfast.

It is a duty which is compulsory (ﻭﺍﺟﺐ) upon every Muslim, whether male or female, minor or adult as long as he or she has the means to do so. It is incumbent on every free Muslim who possesses one sa’ (ﺻﺎﻉ) of dates or barley which is not needed as a basic food for himself or his family for the duration of one day and night. Every free Muslim must pay zakat ul-fitr for himself, his wife, children, and servants.

It was made obligatory in the month of Sha’ban in the second year of the hijrah. Its purpose is to purify one who fasts from any indecent act or speech and to help the poor and needy.

Meanwhile, the significant role played by Zakat in the circulation of wealth within the Islamic society is also played by the Sadaqat al-Fitr . However, in the case of Sadaqat al-Fitr, each individual is required to calculate how much charity is due from himself and his dependents and go into the community in order to find those who deserve such charity. Thus, Sadaqat al-Fitr plays a very important role in the development of the bonds of community.

🍿 When Zakat ul-Fitr is Due

Zakat al-Fitr is only Wajib for a particular period of time. If one misses the time, it cannot be made up. It is accepted as zakah for the person who pays it before the ‘eid salah, and it is sadaqah for the one who pays it after the salah.

This form of charity becomes obligatory from sunset on the last day of fasting and remains obligatory until the beginning of Eid Prayer (i.e shortly after sunrise on the following day). However, it can be paid prior to the above-mentioned period, as many of the Sahabah (companions of the Prophet) used to pay Sadaqah al-Fitr a couple days before theEid.

🍿 The Amount of Zakat ul-Fitr

The required amount of zakat ul-fitr is one sa’ ( ﺻﺎﻉ ) of wheat, barley, raisins, dry cottage cheese (aqit), rice, corn, or similar items considered as basic foods (qut).

The amount of Zakat is the same for everyone regardless of their different income brackets. The minimum amount is one sa(four double handfuls) of food, grain or dried fruit for each member of the family. This calculation is based on Ibn ‘Umar’s report that the Prophet made Zakat al-Fitr compulsory and payable by a sa of dried dates or a sa` of barley.

Abu Saeed al-Khudree also said, “In the Prophet’s time, we used to give it (Zakatal Fitr) as a sa of food, dried dates, barley, raisins or dried cheese”. [Bukhari- Arabic/English vol. 2, p. 340, no. 582].

According to another report, he said: When the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) was amongst us, we used to pay zakaat al-fitr on behalf of everyone, young and old, free and slave, a saa‘ of foodstuff or a saa‘ of dried yoghurt or a saa‘ of barley or a saa‘ of dates or a saa‘ of raisins.

A number of scholars interpreted “foodstuff” in this hadeeth as referring to wheat; others are of the view is that what is meant is the foodstuff of a region, no matter what it is, whether it is wheat or corn or something else.

This is the correct view, because zakaah is a means by which the rich help the poor, and the Muslim is not required to help with anything other than the staple food of his country.

Undoubtedly rice was a staple food in the land of the two Holy Sanctuaries, and it was a good and precious food, and superior to barley, which the text says is acceptable. Thus it is known that there is nothing wrong with giving rice for zakat al-fitr. End quote. ( Majmoo‘ Fataawa ash-Shaykh Ibn Baaz (14/200))

🚭 Note: one sà (صاع) = four Mudd (مد)

🍿 Those Who Are Entitled To Receive Zakaatul Fitri

The recipients of Zakaatul fitri are the same sets of people who are eligible to receive the real Zakaat according to the scholars. Allah (may He be exalted) says;

إِنَّمَا ٱلصَّدَقَٰتُ لِلْفُقَرَآءِ وَٱلْمَسَٰكِينِ وَٱلْعَٰمِلِينَ عَلَيْهَا وَٱلْمُؤَلَّفَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَفِى ٱلرِّقَابِ وَٱلْغَٰرِمِينَ وَفِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَٱبْنِ ٱلسَّبِيلِۖ فَرِيضَةً مِّنَ ٱللَّهِۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ

Zakah expenditures are only for the poor and for the needy and for those employed to collect [zakah] and for bringing hearts together [for Islam] and for freeing captives [or slaves] and for those in debt and for the cause of Allah and for the [stranded] traveler – an obligation [imposed] by Allah . And Allah is Knowing and Wise. (Suuratul Tawbah verse 60).

From the above verse, it is evident that there are eight categories of people entitled to Zakaatul fitri in this regard. They are;

1️⃣ The (فقراء) Poor: The poor are the most set of people who’re entitled to Zakaatul fitri. Scholars have unanimously agreed upon this due to the fact that Allah Himself put them in the forefront of receiving this.

2️⃣ The (مساكين) Needy: The prophet had defined the Needy in the popular hadith narrated by Abu Hurayra that;
لَيْسَ الْمِسْكِينُ بِهَذَا الطَّوَّافِ الَّذِي يَطُوفُ عَلَى النَّاسِ فَتَرُدُّهُ اللُّقْمَةُ وَاللُّقْمَتَانِ وَالتَّمْرَةُ وَالتَّمْرَتَان .الَّذِي لَا يَجِدُ غِنًى يُغْنِيهِ وَلَا يُفْطَنُ لَهُ فَيُتَصَدَّقَ عَلَيْهِ وَلَا يَسْأَلُ النَّاسَ شَيْيًا.

The needy person is not the one who goes round the people and asks them for a mouthful or two (of meals) or a date or two. They asked, “Then who is the needy person, O Allah’s Messenger!” He said, The one who does not have enough to satisfy his needs and whose condition is not known to others, that others may give him something in charity, and who does not beg of people. (Bukhari & Muslim).

3️⃣ The task employees: These are the set of people who are legally employed to foster the easy distribution of the zakaah within their respective territories. They are entitled to it as well except if they are the family/relatives of the prophet. The Messenger of Allah says,
إِنَّ الصَّدَقَةَ لَا تَحِلُّ لِمُحَمَّدٍ وَلَا لاِلِ مُحَمَّدٍ إِنَّمَا هِيَ أَوْسَاخُ النَّاس

Verily, the alms are not allowed for Muhammad nor the relatives of Muhammad, for it is only the dirt that the people discard. Meanwhile, those who are eligible shouldn’t take more than what’s needed and expected of them in the Zakaatul fitri.

4️⃣ Al-Mu’allafatu Qulubuhum: They are those who are given alms to embrace Islam. They are the categories of people who just revert to the fold of Islam from other ‘religions’. They are given this so that their heart will be firmer in faith and become better in Islam.

5️⃣ The Riqab: According to the scholars of tafseer, the ‘Riqab’ means those slaves who make an agreement with the master to pay a certain ransom for their freedom.”

6️⃣ Al-Gharimun (the Indebted): According to the scholars, these categories of Muslims include those;
👉 who incur expenses in solving disputes between people.

👉 those who guarantee a loan that became due.

👉those debts causing financial strain to them.

👉 those whose funds do not sufficiently cover their debts.

👉 It also includes those who indulged in a sin and repented from it.

7️⃣ Those who fought in Allah’s cause: This is exclusive for the benefit of the fighters in Jihad, who do not receive compensation from the Muslim Treasury or any set of people in similar category.

8️⃣ Ibn As-Sabil (Wayfarer): Ibn As-Sabil is a term used for the needy traveler in a land, where he does not have what helps him continue his trip. This type has a share in the Zakah and Zakaatul fitri for what suffices him to reach his destination, even if he had money there.

Summarily, these categories of people are all entitled to Zakaatul fitri except stated otherwise as regards the Shariah rulings in special conditions. This is to make everyone happy on eid day no matter the circumstance. May almighty Allah blot out this pandemic soonest and return us all back to our various masaajids. (Aameen)

And Allah knows best!

©️ Assoutudeen Prophetic Medicine Foundation (APMF)

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THE CONCEPT OF I’TIKAAF

INTRODUCTION TO I’TIKAAF ( ﺍﻋﺘﻜﺎﻑ )

Written and Compiled by; Assoutudeen Abu Mubaashir!
Website: thepropheticmedicine.com.ng
E-mail: propheticmedicineng@gmail.com

I’tikaaf refers to going into seclusion in the mosque for the sole purpose of worshipping Allah and attaching oneself and one’s heart to His worship for a certain number of days, and staying away from worldly affairs. A person observing I’tikaf ( ﻣﻌﺘﻜﻒ ) is expected to stay in a mosque for the duration of the I’tikaaf (except for certain things as described below in the prophetic sayings:

📘 Aa’ishah reported that when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) observed I’tikaf, he did not enter the house except to relieve himself. Narrated by Muslim (297).

Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said: The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used not to enter the house except for things that a person needs when he was observing I’tikaf. [Al-Bukhari (2092) and Muslim (297)]

Ibn Qudaamah (may Allah have mercy on him) said that what is meant by things that a person needs is to urinate and defecate, because every person need to do that.

Similarly, he also needs to eat and drink. If he does not have anyone who can bring him food and drink, then he may go out to get them if he needs to. For everything that he cannot do without and cannot do in the mosque, he may go out for that purpose, and that does not invalidate his I’tikaf, so long as he does not take a long time doing it. (al-Mughni (4/466)

TYPES OF I’TIKAAF

I’tikaf is of two types: sunnah and obligatory.

1⃣ The sunnah i’tikaf is that which the Muslim performs to get closer to Allah by following the actions of the Prophet, upon whom be peace, especially during the last ten days of Ramadan.

2⃣ The obligatory i’tikaf is that which the person makes obligatory upon himself. This may be done, for example, by an oath: “For Allah I must make i’tikaf,” or by a conditional oath: “If Allah cures me, I shall make i’tikaf …”

In Sahih al-Bukhari it is reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: _”Whoever makes an oath to obey Allah should be obedient to Him.” ‘Umar said: “O Messenger of Allah, I made an oath to perform i’tikaaf one night in the mosque at Makkah.” The Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: “Fulfill your oath.”

THE MOSQUES IN WHICH I’HTIKAAF IS TO PERFORMED

There is a difference of opinion among the jurists concerning which mosques are acceptable for itikaf. According to Abu Hanifah, Ahmad, Ishaq, and At- Thawr, itikaf is valid in any mosque in which the five prayers are held and which has a congregation. This is based on the hadith of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him): “Every mosque that has a caller to prayer and an imam is acceptable for i`tikaf .” (Ad-Daraqutni)

Imam Malik, ash-Shafii, and Dawud say that it is acceptable in any mosque, as there is no proof that restricts it to any particular mosque. The Shafi followers say it is better to perform itikaf in a Jami mosque (in which the Jumah prayer is performed), as the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) performed itikaf in such a mosque, and because the number of those who attend the prayers in such a mosque is greater. If the period of itikaf includes the time for the Jumah prayer, then one must perform it in the Jamimosque in order not to miss the Jumah prayer.

WHEN TO ENTER AND EXIT FROM I’TIKAAF

Entering
With regard to entering the place of i’tikaaf, the majority of scholars (including the four imams Abu Haneefah, Maalik, al-Shaafa’i and Ahmad, may Allaah have mercy on them) are of the view that the one who wants to observe i’tikaaf during the last ten days of Ramadaan should enter his place of i’tikaaf before the sun sets on the night of the twenty-first. They quoted several texts as evidence, including the following:

1⃣ It was proven that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to observe i’tikaaf during the last ten nights of Ramadaan (Agreed upon)

This indicates that the period of i’tikaaf is counted by the nights, not the days. Based on this, he should enter the mosque before the sun sets on the night of the twenty-first.

2⃣ They (the scholars) said that one of the greatest aims of i’tikaaf is to seek Laylat al-Qadr, and the night of the twenty-first is one of the odd-numbered nights in the last ten nights of Ramadaan, so it may possibly be Laylat al-Qadr, so he should be observing i’tikaaf on that night.

However, al-Bukhaari (2041) and Muslim (1173) narrated that ‘Aa’ishah said: When the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) wanted to observe i’tikaaf, he would pray Fajr then enter his place of i’tikaaf.

Scholars have interpreted this hadeeth that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had started i’tikaaf before the sun set, but he did not enter the place for i’tikaaf until after Fajr prayer.

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen said: The majority of scholars are of the view that i’tikaaf should begin on the night of the twenty first, not from Fajr of the twenty-first, although some of the scholars are of the view that i’tikaaf should begin from Fajr of the twenty-first, based on the hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) that was narrated by al-Bukhaari: “When he had prayed Fajr he entered his place of i’tikaaf”. But the majority of scholars responded by stating that the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) withdrew from people in the morning, but the intention to observe i’tikaaf was formed at the beginning of the night, because the last ten nights start when the sun sets on the twentieth.

EXIT FROM I’TIKAÀF
The period of i’tikaaf during the (last) ten nights of Ramadaan ends when the sun sets on the last day of the month. If the mu’takif (ﻣﻌﺘﻜﻒ) chooses to stay until he has prayed Fajr and then depart from his place of i’tikaaf to the Eid prayer, there is nothing wrong with that. Some of the scholars regarded that as mustahabb.
Imam Maalik (may Allaah be pleased with him) said that he saw that some of the scholars who had observed i’tikaaf during the last ten nights of Ramadaan did not go back to their families until they had attended the (prayer of Eid) al-Fitr with the people. Maalik said: I heard that from the righteous people who have passed on, and this is the dearest to me of what I have heard about that.

Al-Shaafa’i and his companions said: Whoever would like to follow the example of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) in observing i’tikaaf during the last ten nights of Ramadaan should enter the mosque before the sun sets on the night of the twenty-first, so that he will not miss any of it, and he should come out after the sun sets on the night of Eid, whether the month is twenty-nine days or thirty. It is better for him to stay in the mosque on the night of Eid so that he can offer the Eid prayer there, or go out to the Eid prayer-place if they pray Eid there. If he goes directly from i’tikaaf to the Eid prayer, it is mustahabb for him to do ghusl and make himself look good before going out, because this is one of the Sunnahs of Eid.

BASIC GOALS OF I’TIKAAF

📘Al-Imam Muslim narrated that Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri (may Allaah be pleased with him) said:

The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) observed i’tikaaf during the first ten days of Ramadaan, then he observed i’tikaaf during the middle ten days in a small tent at the door of which was a red mat. He took the mat in his hand and lifted it. Then he put his head out and spoke to the people, and they came close to him. He said: “I observed i’tikaaf during the first ten days seeking this night, then I observed i’tikaaf during the middle ten days. Then someone came and said to me that it is in the last ten days, so whoever among you wishes to observe i’tikaaf let him do so.” So the people observed i’tikaaf with him.

This hadeeth teaches us a number of things:

1⃣- That the basic goal of the i’tikaaf of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was to seek Laylat al-Qadr and to prepare to spend that night in worship. That is because of the great virtue of that night of which Allaah says:

Surah Al-Qadr, Verse 3:

ﻟَﻴْﻠَﺔُ ﺍﻟْﻘَﺪْﺭِ ﺧَﻴْﺮٌ ﻣِّﻦْ ﺃَﻟْﻒِ ﺷَﻬْﺮٍ

The night of Al-Qadr (Decree) is better than a thousand months (i.e. worshipping Allah in that night is better than worshipping Him a thousand months, (i.e. 83 years and 4 months).

2⃣- The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) strove to seek that night before he was told when it is. So he started with the first ten days, then he observed it during the middle ten, then he continued to observe i’tikaaf during the last ten days, when he was told that it is in the last ten days. This is the utmost effort to seek Laylat al-Qadr.

3⃣- The Sahaabah (may Allaah be pleased with them) followed the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), because they started i’tikaaf and continued with him until the end of the month, because they were so keen to follow his example.

4⃣- The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was compassionate towards his companions and showed mercy to them, because he knew that i’tikaaf was difficult for them. So he gave them the choice between staying with him or of leaving, and said: “…so whoever among you wishes to observe i’tikaaf let him do so.”

Other aims of itikaaf

1⃣- Being alone with Allaah and cutting oneself off from people if possible, so that one may focus completely on Allaah.

2⃣- Renewing oneself spiritually by focusing totally on Allaah.

3⃣- Cutting oneself off completely in order to worship Allaah with prayer, du’aa’, dhikr and reading Qur’aan.

4⃣- Protecting one’s fast from everything that may affect it of whims and desires.

5⃣- Reducing permissible worldly pleasures and refraining from many of them even though one is able to enjoy them.

PERMISSIBLE ACTS FOR THE MU’TAKIF

The following acts are permissible for one who is making i’tikaf:

1⃣ The person may leave his place of i’tikaaf to bid farewell to his wife

Safiyyah bint Huyàae reported: “The Prophet was performing i’tikaaf and I went to visit him during the night. I talked to him and then I got up to go. He got up with me and accompanied me to my house. (Her residence was in the house of Usamah ibn Zaid. Two men of the Ansar passed by them and when they saw the Prophet they quickened their pace.) The Prophet said: ‘Hold on, she is Safiyyah bint Hayayee.’ They said: ‘Glory be to Allah, O Messenger of Allah, we did not have any doubt about you].’ The Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: ‘Satan flows in the person like blood. I feared that he might have whispered some [slander] into your heart.'” This is related by al-Bukhari, Muslim, and Abu Dawud.

2⃣ Combing and cutting one’s hair, clipping one’s nails, cleaning one’s body, wearing nice clothes or wearing perfume

‘Aishah reported: “The Prophet was performing i’tikaaf and he would put his head out through the opening to my room and I would clean [or comb in one narration] his hair. I was menstruating at the time.” This is related by al-Bukhari, Muslim, and Abu Dawud.

3⃣ The person may go out for some need that he must perform

‘Aishah reported: “When the Prophet performed i’tikaaf, he brought his head close to me so I could comb his hair, and he would not enter the house except to fulfill the needs a person has.” This is related by al-Bukhari, Muslim, and others.

Ibn al-Munzhir says: “The scholars agree that the one who performs i’tikaaf may leave the mosque in order to answer the call of nature, for this is something that he personally must perform, and he cannot do it in the mosque. Also, if he needs to eat or drink and there is no one to bring him his food, he may leave to get it. If one needs to vomit, he may leave the mosque to do so. For anything that he must do but cannot do in the mosque, he can leave it, and such acts will not void his i’tikaf, even if they take a long time. Examples of these types of acts would include washing one’s self from sexual defilement and cleaning his body or clothes from impurities.”

4⃣. The person may eat, drink, and sleep in the mosque, and he should also keep it clean. He may make contracts for marriage if need be but must be out of sincerity, buying, selling, and so on are also reasonably allowed by the scholars.

Meanwhile, In this current (pandemic) situation where observing normal and compulsory solaah in congregation isn’t welcomed, observing iitikaaf in such standard masaajids may not be allowed as well as emphasized by some sets of scholars. We hope and expect that Allah will reward those who are used to observing iitikaāf before this pandemic in totality if they leave going to masjids to perform iitikaaf for His sake only. Therefore we enjoined us to increase in our Qur’an recitation most especially at the last ten nights of Ramadhan, observe unlimited nawaafil and other acts of worship even when we are not allowed to observe iitikaaf in our various standard mosques. May almighty Allah never deny us the complete reward in both worlds. (Aameen).

And Allah knows best!

©️ Assoutudeen Prophetic Medicine Foundation (APMF)

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IZKHER (LEMONGRASS): A POWERFUL PROPHETIC MEDICINE

IZKHER (LEMONGRASS): A POWERFUL PROPHETIC MEDICINE

Compiled and Written by; Assoutudeen Abu Mubashīr

Website: thepropheticmedicine.com.ng
E-mail: propheticmedicineng@gmail.com

Izkher is a wild grass that grows in deserts; it is totally managed by Allah & remains untouched by human’s cultivation & irrigation. It is translated as lemongrass in English, but Izkher’s fragrant smell & bitter taste is much stronger than the ordinary lemongrass.

Lemongrass, also called fever grass, is a perennial plant with thin, long leaves that is indigenous to many Asian and African countries. As the name implies, lemongrass smells like lemon, but it tastes milder and sweeter even much more of perfume. This herb is used in various Asian cuisines as a flavoring agent due to its potent flavor.

Nutritionally, lemongrass is a good source of vitamins A and C, folate, folic acid, magnesium, zinc, copper, iron, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and manganese. It also has minute traces of B vitamins. Along with its culinary uses, lemongrass is useful in alternative or complementary remedies for a wide range of ailments.

ITS MEDICAL BENEFITS

📕إذْخِرٌ: ثبت فى “الصحيح”، عنه صلى الله عليه وسلم أنه قال فى مكةَ: “لا يُختَلَى خَلاَها”، قال له العباس رضى الله عنه: إلا الإذْخِرَ يا رسولَ اللهِ؛ فإنه لِقَيْنِهم ولبيوتِهِم، فقال: “إلا الإذْخِرَ”

والإذْخِرُ حارٌ فى الثانية، يابسٌ فى الأُولى، لطيف مفتح للسُّددِ، وأفواه العروقُ، يُدرُّ البَوْل والطَّمْث، ويُفَتِّتُ الحصى، ويُحلِّل الأورام الصلبة فى المَعِدَة والكَبِد والكُلْيَتين شرباً وضِماداً، وأصلُه يُقوِّى عمودَ الأسنان والمَعِدَة، ويسكن الغَثَيان، ويَعْقِلُ البطن.

📙In the Sahih Hadith, it is narrated that Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) said in Makkah about its plants: “Do not cut its plants.” Abdullah bn Abāss said, “Except for Izkher, O Messenger of Allah for their (the people of Makkah) servants use it and it is used for their house, so our beloved Prophet said: “Except Izkher”. (Bukhari)

The scholars of hadith has made us realised that the statement Except izkher made by the prophet is one of the Jawaamihu li kalmi(Broad and extensive statement of Rosuululah) to that hadith. Therefore, The beneficial importance of this prophetic drug are as follows:

1⃣ Helps Digestion
Lemongrass promotes healthy digestion. It has antiseptic compounds that effectively kill bad bacteria and parasites in the digestive tract and repopulate the good bacteria in the colon. This in turn helps treat digestive health problems like indigestion, constipation, heartburn, diarrhea, bloating, flatulence, stomach spasms, vomiting and cramps. Plus, lemongrass has antimicrobial properties that help relieve gastroenteritis. For a healthy digestive tract, drink lemongrass tea on regular basis. Lemongrass tea, however, is not recommended for small children.

2⃣ Controls Cholesterol Levels
The anti-cholesterol and anti-atherosclerosis action of lemongrass helps reduce the absorption of cholesterol from the intestine.In addition, it helps in the oxidation of LDL-cholesterol in the blood, which helps to prevent atherosclerotic plaque buildup.

A University of Wisconsin study in 1989 found that people with high cholesterol who took 140-milligram capsules of lemongrass oil daily noticed reduction in cholesterol levels. They also experienced a significant decrease in blood fats. The high potassium content in lemongrass also helps lower and regulate blood pressure.

Simply drink a cup of lemongrass tea everyday to help lower your cholesterol level and reduce blood pressure. You can also take this herb in supplement form after consulting your doctor in shaa Allah.

3⃣ Cleanses and Detoxifies
Regular consumption of lemongrass tea helps cleanse and detoxify the body. The diuretic nature of lemongrass helps remove toxins, uric acid and bad cholesterol from the body by increasing the frequency and quantity of urination. Urination also helps clean out the kidneys.

Consequently, the cleansing properties of this herbal tea help purify the liver, kidneys, bladder and pancreas. It also plays a key role in increasing blood circulation, which is important for overall health. Drink lemongrass tea on a regular basis to help your body get rid of harmful elements.

4⃣ Heals Colds & Flu
Lemongrass has antibacterial and antifungal properties that help your body cope with coughs, fever and other cold and flu symptoms. It is loaded with vitamin C that boosts the immune system to fight the infection. Its oil can be used to relieve pain in muscles and joints, as well as headaches resulting from a cold or the flu.

Also, lemongrass can be effective in breaking down mucus and phlegm buildup, which can alleviate problems with breathing. This is mainly beneficial when suffering from bronchitis or asthma. It can be recommended as part of drugs to tackle some respiratory diseases in which covid-19 (Coronavirus) isn’t left out.

🥦 The following medicinal drink can be made from lemongrass;

👉 Boil a few fresh strands of lemongrass, two or three cloves, a small piece of cinnamon stick, one teaspoon of turmeric powder in one cup of milk. Strain and drink it when it cools down. Drink this once a day for a few days.

5⃣ Fights Cancer
Research at Ben Gurion University in Israel has shown that lemongrass tea can help fight cancer. A component called ‘citral’ found in lemongrass causes apoptosis in cancer cells without damaging healthy cells. It causes the cancer cells to commit suicide.

In fact, to help the healing process, cancer patients in Israel are encouraged to take fresh lemongrass tea while undergoing radiation or chemotherapy treatments.

Another study published in 2009 in the journal Fundamentals of Clinical Pharmacology found that citral in lemongrass slows the growth of breast cancer cells in the laboratory.

In addition, there are several antioxidant properties in lemongrass that help lower the risk of cancer by fighting free radicals.

6⃣ Reduces Arthritis Pain
Due to its anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties, lemongrass helps treat arthritis, rheumatism, osteoarthritis, gout and other types of joint pain. Its anti-inflammatory properties help suppress the activity of cyclooxygenase-2, an enzyme involved in inflammation that causes pain, especially in joints.

Meanwhile, lemongrass helps to alleviate muscle spasms or sprains by relaxing the muscles, which reduces the pain-related symptoms.

👉 You can mix lemongrass oil with coconut oil in a 1:2 ratio and rub it over the affected area. Leave it on for a few hours before rinsing it off. Do this daily for a few weeks.You can also drink lemongrass tea twice daily for best results.

7⃣ Benefits New Mothers
Lemongrass is highly beneficial for new mothers who are breastfeeding their babies. It has galactogogue properties that help increase breast milk production. Its antimicrobial and antibacterial properties also help the babies remain healthy and free from infections.

Lactating mothers can drink one to two cups of lemongrass tea daily.

🔞 Note: Lemongrass should be avoided during the first two trimesters of pregnancy

8⃣ Fights Depression
The antidepressant properties of lemongrass help treat depression. The herb also activates the release of serotonin, a chemical in the brain that combats depression. Lemongrass relieves anxiety, boosts self esteem, uplifts spirits, gives confidence and improves mental strength.

Lemongrass also contains citronella, which is well known for its calming effect on the mind and body. It also helps one to sleep better.

Drink a cup of lemongrass tea, whenever you feel depressed or have a low mood. The tea will help you keep calm and cool.

👉 Furthermore, The leaves and the oil are used to make different medicine.

👉 Lemongrass is used for treating digestive tract spasms, stomach ache, high blood pressure, convulsions, pain, vomiting, cough, achy joints (rheumatism), fever, the common cold, and exhaustion.

👉 It is also used to kill germs and as a mild astringent.

👉 Conclusively, Izkher is a light substance that opens clogs and the veins orifices.

👉 It increases urine and menstruation-flow.

👉 It dissolves the stones and the hard tumors in the stomach, liver and kidneys, either as a drink or as a bandage.

👉 Because of its moisturizing smell, it serves as a good bait to capture honeybees.

👉 The stems of Izkher will strengthen the column of the teeth and the stomach.

👉 It calms nausea and constipate the stomach.

👉 It can be found in dried state with Bedouins; they sell it at Masjid-e-Quba’a & Jabal Uhud.

In Nigeria, It can be found in all reputable prophetic medicine stores and supermarkets where original prophetic drugs are sold. It is as well rampant in rural areas especially during the rainy seasons.

©️ Assoutudeen Prophetic Medicine Foundation (APMF)

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THE MYTH SURROUNDING TWO MONTHS FASTING AS AN EXPIATION FOR BREAKING A FAST INTENTIONALLY

THE EXPIATION (FASTING FOR TWO MONTHS) FOR INTENTIONALLY BREAKING FAST IN RAMADAN; AN ERRONEOUS BELIEF

Written and Compiled by;
Assoutudeen Abu Mubaashir!

Website: thepropheticmedicine.com.ng
E-mail: propheticmedicineng@gmail.com

Islam is a religion free from ignorance and it’s built on knowledge. It is always based on direct evidence from the Kitab and Sunnah in which all other judgements are being passed upon. It is baseless and erroneous to pass judgement out of self-desire and ignorance without full knowledge on a matter regarding the deen of Allah, most especially in this blessed month of Ramadan concerning fasting.

As it has been explained in our previous write-ups on what really invalidate our fast which is no more a news to a conscious Muslim that there are seven major things that break the fast. Other actions are subservient to the listed actions as follow:

1⃣ Intercourse
2⃣ Masturbation
3⃣ Eating and drinking
4⃣ Anything that is regarded as coming under the same heading as eating and drinking
5⃣ Letting blood by means of cupping and its likes
6⃣ Vomiting deliberately
7⃣ Menstruation and postnatal bleeding

The first of these things that invalidate the fast is intercourse. This is the most serious and the most sinful of the things that invalidate the fast. Whoever (A man or a woman) has intercourse during the day in Ramadaan deliberately and out of his or her own freewill, in which the two circumcised parts meet and the tip of the manhood disappears in either of the two passages, has invalidated his fast, whether he ejaculates or not.

He and his wife have to repent, complete that day (i.e., not eat or drink until sunset), make up that day’s fast later on and offer a severe expiation. The evidence for that is the hadeeth narrated by Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: A man came to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and said, “I am doomed, O Messenger of Allaah!” He said, “Why are you doomed?” He said, “I had intercourse with my wife (during the day) in Ramadaan.” He said, “Can you free a slave?” He said, “No.” He said, “Can you fast for two consecutive months?” He said, “No.” He said, “Can you feed sixty poor persons?” He said, “No.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1936; Muslim, 1111)

With regards to this hadith, scholars of Islam have talked extensively on the fact that the claim for any of the things that can invalidate fast outside intercourse will not required expiation.

No expiation is required for any of the things that break the fast apart from intercourse. Saying whoever breaks his fast with food or drink or anything else beside sex will repay it with 2 months fasting is baseless as far as fiqh of fasting is concerned.

Al-Imam As-sa’diy said and commented on the above hadith that
ومن أفطر فعليه القضاء، إذا كان فطره بأكل، أو بشرب أو قيء، عمدا أو حجامة أو إمناء بمباشرة، إلا من أفطر بجماع فإنه يقضي ويعنق رقبة ، فإن لم يجد فصيام شهرين متتابعين، فإن لم يستطع فإطعام ستين مسكينا

Whoever break his fast will only repay it once even if He breaks it with food or drink or vomiting intentionally or with cupping or masturbation. Except the one who break his fast with sexual intercourse, He will have to free a slave if he doesn’t have the capability, He will have to fast for two consecutive months, if he can’t do that, He will have to feed sixty poors.
(منهج السالكين وتوضيح الفقه في الدين لشيخ الامام السعدي)

The inference from the scholar in the aforementioned hadith is that the prophet commanded him to choose one ( though in consecutive order) among the three things in which fasting for two months is among them. It directly means that it is not compulsory to fast for two consecutive months when the offender can observe the first expiation. If he can’t then first option, fasting for two consecutive months holds before the third option.

Summarily, this made it clear that fasting for two months is ONLY for the offenders who break their fast with intercourse (and doesn’t have the ability to observe freeing a slave or feeding 60 poor people) and not that of the general and erroneous ideology.

⚠ EVILS OF BREAKING FAST INTENTIONALLY WITHOUT ANY RECOGNISED CONSTRAINT

Firstly, in the land of the Shariah where the laws of Allah are being implemented fully, as for a Muslim who deliberately does not fast in Ramadan, thinking it is permissible to do so, he has become a disbeliever. He should be asked to repent, and if he repents, all well and good, otherwise he is to be executed. This is the view of majority of the scholars.

Meanwhile, whoever openly breaks the fast should be given a disciplinary punishment by the ruler, a punishment that will deter him and others like him from doing this grave act.

There is a number of comments by the scholars concerning that;

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said: If a person breaks the fast in Ramadan, believing that to be permissible although he is aware of the prohibition on doing so, but he thinks that it is permissible for him, he must be executed.

He continues, If he is an evildoer, he should be punished for breaking the fast of Ramadan, as the ruler sees fit. If he is ignorant, he is to be taught the ruling.(al-Fataawa al-Kubra (2/473) )

Ibn Hajar al-Haytami (may Allah have mercy on him) said: It is one of the major sins not fasting one of the days of Ramadan, and breaking the fast by having intercourse or otherwise, with no excuse such as sickness or travelling.(az-Zawaajir (1/323)).

The scholars of the standing committee for issuing Fatwas said: Breaking the fast during the day in Ramadan on the part of one who is accountable is a major sin, if it is done without a legitimate excuse.
( Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa’imah (10/357)).

Shaykh Ibn Baaz said: Whoever breaks the fast on any day in Ramadan, with no legitimate excuse, has committed a grave evil. Whoever repents, Allah will accept his repentance, so he must repent to Allah sincerely, by regretting what he has done in the past and resolving not to repeat it, and he should ask his Lord for forgiveness a great deal, and hasten to make up the day that he did not fast. (Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa’imah (10/357)).

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) was asked about the ruling on breaking the fast during the day in Ramadan with no excuse.

He replied: Breaking the fast during the day in Ramadan with no excuse is a major sin, and the individual becomes an evildoer thereby. He must repent to Allah and make up the day that he did not fast. (Majmoo‘ Fataawa wa Rasaa’il al’Uthaymeen (19/89)).

An-Nasaa’i narrated in al-Kubra (3273) that Abu Umaamah said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) say: Whilst I was sleeping, two men came to me and took hold of my arms… And he quoted the hadith, in which he said: Then they set off with me, and I saw some people hung up by their Achilles tendon, with the corners of their mouths torn and dripping with blood. I said: Who are these? He said: These are the people who used to break the fast before it was permissible to do so.
Sheikh Al-Albaani classed it as saheeh in as-Saheehah (3951), after which Sheikh himself said: This is the punishment of those who fasted then broke the fast before the time for breaking the fast came. So how about those who did not fast at all?! We ask Allah to keep us safe and sound in this world and the hereafter.

Conclusively, we say it isn’t permissible to break fast intentionally when there is no recognized constraint for a sane Muslim who believes in the punishment of Allah in this life, the grave and hereafter.

If the scholars most especially Ibn Taymiyya can attribute execution to someone who does that, then we should know the gravity of the sin to Allah. If you think you’re in a country where sharia isn’t practised, kindly note that the punishments of hell fire is indeed a punishment which shall be melted on evil doer like you who isn’t ready to repent. We supplicate to the uncreated Creator to grant us steadfastness and patience upon this deen so as to endure all forms of hardship that come our way as a result of our eeman. May almighty Allah grant us his forgiveness and admit us to Jannah (Aameen)

And Allah knows best.

© Assoutudeen Prophetic Medicine Foundation (APMF)

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IS CUPPING ALLOWED WHILE FASTING?

THE RULINGS ON CUPPING (HIJAAMA) WHILE FASTING.

Written and Compiled by;
Assoutudeen Abu Mubaashir

This is a write-up written to corroborate our previous articles on those actions that invalidate one’s fast during Ramadan, in which cupping was categorically stated not to be permissible. We result to explain deeper that there are different opinions among the scholars concerning its permissibility.

Firstly, it was stated in the hadeeth of Shaddad and Raafa’i ibn Khadij (two sahabas) that the Prophet(Peace be upon him) as saying
“أفطر الحاجم والمحجوم”
‘A man who cups and the one who is being cupped break their fast’

(Abu Dawood, 2367, Ibn Maajah 1676, Classed as Saheeh by Albani.)

Secondly, it was narrated by Ibn Abàas that
احْتَجَمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ وَهُوَ صَائِمٌ مُحْرِمٌ ‏”.‏”
It was narrated by Ibn Abbas that he saw the prophet: “ The prophet Muhammed (pbuh) did cupping and he was fasting and in Ihram”

(Bukhari 5:665, Ibn Majah 7:1752, Abi Dawud 2373, Tirmidhi 777)

Looking critically at these two authentic ahadith, we will see that they seem to undoubtedly contradict each other. Then the question is what has the scholars got to say on these two ahadith❓

In Islam, understanding the statement of Allah and the Prophet is very paramount to our religious affairs. Difference of opinions among the scholars concerning an issue most especially on fiqh might be a blessing of knowledge for this Ummah.

The first opinion was based on the first quoted hadith which clearly means that Cupping breaks your fast! This opinion was chosen by Ibn Taymiyah, his student Ibn Qayyum as well as other scholars such as Ibn Mundthir, Ibn Khuzayma, Al-Awza’i, Al Darmi, Ishaaq and is the opinion of the Imam Hanbali and his madhab. (Check Al-mugni vol.2 and Zàadul Màad)

Ibn Taymiyah supports this opinion also because, if the removal of blood in cupping is similar to other instances where something related to that is removed and the fast is broken such as menses & ejaculation, then cupping itself could break the fast.

Consequently, the second hadith is taken by the majority of scholars and they hold the opinion that Cupping whilst fasting does not break your fast because there are other hadeeth apart from the quoted one supporting that sahaba would have cupping even whilst fasting:
وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، أَنَّ سَعْدَ بْنَ أَبِي وَقَّاصٍ، وَعَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عُمَرَ، كَانَا يَحْتَجِمَانِ وَهُمَا صَائِمَانِ
“Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab that Sad ibn Abi Waqqas and Abdullah ibn Umar used to be cupped while they were fasting (Muwatta Malik 18:665)

In another hadith reported by Imam Bukhari himself,
حَدَّثَنَا آدَمُ بْنُ أَبِي إِيَاسٍ، حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ ثَابِتًا الْبُنَانِيَّ، يَسْأَلُ أَنَسَ بْنَ مَالِكٍ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ أَكُنْتُمْ تَكْرَهُونَ الْحِجَامَةَ لِلصَّائِمِ قَالَ لاَ‏.‏ إِلاَّ مِنْ أَجْلِ الضَّعْفِ‏.‏ وَزَادَ شَبَابَةُ حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ عَلَى عَهْدِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم‏.‏
“Anas bin Malik was asked whether they disliked the cupping for a fasting person. He replied in the negative and said, “Only if it causes weakness.” (Bukhari 1940)

While understanding the concept of the first and second hadith quoted above, we reconcile them together through the scholars argumentation explained below

1⃣ Hanbalis says: The hadeeth of Shaddad is a saying of prophet, whilst the hadeeth of Ibn Abbass is an action of the prophet. It is a principle within hanbali fiqh (والقول مقدم على الفعل)
that the speech of the Prophet(pbuh) is higher ranked than the reported actions.

❌ Majority argues that: This principle is only used in cases where you are left to choose between probabilities only, but this principle should only be used in situations where there is no contradicting hadeeths present (which there are in this case), or when a hadeeth authenticity cannot be proven.

2⃣ Hanbalis says: The hadeeth of Shaddad has been narrated by more than 16 companions, it is also supported by the actions of Sahaba who would delay doing cupping until after iftar.

❌ Majority argues that: It is not clear the sahaba have delayed their cupping till after iftar due to the Prophet saying so or because they were afraid of weakness whilst fasting.

3⃣ Imam Ahmad and others said: The hadith of Ibn Abbas is wrong due to a defect in one narrator namely Qobaysa, the words “and he was fasting” was not present in the original hadeeth.

❌ Majority argues: This is the opinion of Ahmad, it has been narrated by others and also with Imam Bukhari, that this hadeeth fulfils the conditions required to be in Saheeh Bukhari.

4⃣ Hanbalis continues: That removing anything coming out from your body that may make you weak will break the fast. E.g vomiting, menses, semen.

❌ Majority argues that: This principle of analogy would indeed be correct if it was not contested with any other textual evidences which are supporting the action.

5⃣ Hanbalis says: This is not the case as we believe the Prophet was not actually fasting during this Hajj that Ibn Abbas witnessed. Even if we are to accept the words “and he was in ihram” and “he was fasting” , this linguistically can be taken as two separate subjects in a sentence, it may be that it was referring to two separate instances. i.e he did hijama during whilst in ihram or he did hijama whilst fasting. It is because of this possibility that we refute this hadeeth.

❌ Majority refutes that: The hadeeth of Shaddad is in fact abrogated and is supported by other hadeeths of Al-Nasaa’I in al-kubra and ibn Khuzaymah in his saheeh. They continue, ”We don’t hold the hadeeth of Shaddad as an opinion as we have other points which oppose this hadeeth, which allow cupping during fasting. Their points are:

👉 Shaddad said “broken fast (iftar) ” and that can mean other things like it could mean that you’ve lost the reward in the fast like in the hadeeth of the two people that were backbiting whilst fasting, it was said in the hadeeth they have “broken fast (iftar) ”, in that instance they had not technically broken their fast but in fact, lost the reward of it.

👉 Or we can even understand that it means that the fast has been weakened or closer to being broken.

Imam Nawawi who is also part of the majority says in the book Sharh madhab that the first understanding that comes from the hadeeth of Ibn Abbas and the other hadeeths is that cupping DOES NOT break your fast.

Conclusively, personally what I (Assoutudeen) can infer from the scholars’ stances is that cupping does not break fast, and that if you fear that you become weak from it then it is makrooh (disliked). This issue of weakness being makrooh is supported by Abi Dawood. He reported the Prophet Muhammed (PBUH) would carry on fasting even after iftar as a special case for himself, the Prophet did not make this haram but advised the sahabas who copied him not to do it due to them becoming weak.

Besides, we result to one Qooidah (judgement) in one of the Qowaaid (judgements) of Usuul li fiqh (principles and fundamentals of fiqh) which states that
ما حرم سدا لذريعة ابيح للمصلحة الراجحة
which means what has been generally known as greatly forbidden matters might be permissible if there is a need for it in as much as there is an evidence (Qur’an and Sunnah) to support its permissibility.

If there is a need to perform cupping (Hijaamah) while fasting such that if not done, it may lead to death, then it might be permissible to do so .

On the final note, the best opinion to me is to follow the minority among the scholars by avoiding cupping during fasting except there is exceptional need for it.

And Allah knows best!

© Assoutudeen Prophetic Medicine Foundation (APMF)

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THINGS THAT INVALIDATE FAST

THINGS THAT INVALIDATE FAST

Compiled & Written by; Assoutudeen Abu Mubaashir.

E-mail: propheticmedicineng@gmail.com
Website: thepropheticmedicine.com.ng

Allaah has prescribed fasting in accordance with the highest wisdom. He has commanded the fasting person to fast in a moderate manner, so he should not harm himself by fasting or consume anything that will invalidate the fast. Hence the things that invalidate the fast are of two types:

Some of the things that invalidate the fast involve things coming out of the body, such as semen (intercourse), deliberate vomiting, menstruation and cupping. These things that come out of the body weaken it. Hence Allaah has described them as being things that invalidate the fast, so that the fasting person will not combine the weakness that results from fasting with the weakness that results from these things, and thus be harmed by his fast or his fast no longer be moderate. And some of the things that invalidate the fast involve things entering the body, such as eating and drinking. If the fasting person eats or drinks, he does not achieve the purpose of fasting. Majmoo’ al-Fataawa , 25/248

Allaah has summed up the things that break the fast in the verse where He says:
ﻓَﺎﻟْﺂﻥَ ﺑَﺎﺷِﺮُﻭﻫُﻦَّ ﻭَﺍﺑْﺘَﻐُﻮﺍ ﻣَﺎ ﻛَﺘَﺐَ ﺍﻟﻠَّﻪُ ﻟَﻜُﻢْ ﻭَﻛُﻠُﻮﺍ ﻭَﺍﺷْﺮَﺑُﻮﺍ ﺣَﺘَّﻰٰ ﻳَﺘَﺒَﻴَّﻦَ ﻟَﻜُﻢُ ﺍﻟْﺨَﻴْﻂُ ﺍﻟْﺄَﺑْﻴَﺾُ ﻣِﻦَ ﺍﻟْﺨَﻴْﻂِ ﺍﻟْﺄَﺳْﻮَﺩِ ﻣِﻦَ ﺍﻟْﻔَﺠْﺮ ﺛُﻢَّ ﺃَﺗِﻤُّﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺼِّﻴَﺎﻡَ ﺇِﻟَﻰ ﺍﻟﻠَّﻴْﻞ

“So now have sexual relations with them and seek that which Allaah has ordained for you (offspring), and eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of night), then complete your Sawm (fast) till the nightfall” ( al-Baqarah 2:187)

In this verse, Allaah mentions the main things that invalidate the fast, which are eating, drinking and intercourse. The other things that break the fast were mentioned by the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) in his Sunnah. There are seven things that break the fast, as follows:

1️⃣ Intercourse
This is the most serious and the most sinful of the things that invalidates the fast. Whoever has intercourse during the day in Ramadaan deliberately and of his or her own free will, in which the two circumcised parts meet and the tip of the penis disappears in either of the two passages, has invalidated his fast, whether he ejaculates or not. He has to repent, complete that day (i.e., not eat or drink until sunset), make up that day’s fast later on and offer a severe expiation. The evidence for that is the hadeeth narrated by Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: A man came to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and said, “I am doomed, O Messenger of Allaah!” He said, “Why are you doomed?” He said, “I had intercourse with my wife (during the day) in Ramadaan.” He said, “Can you free a slave?” He said, “No.” He said, “Can you fast for two consecutive months?” He said, “No.” He said, “Can you feed sixty poor persons?” He said, “No.
{Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1936; Muslim, 1111.}

2⃣ Masturbation

The second of the things that invalidate the fast is masturbation. This means causing ejaculation or climax by using the hand etc. The evidence that masturbation is one of the things that invalidates the fast is the words of Allaah in the hadeeth qudsi in which He says of the fasting person: “He gives up his food and drink and desire for My sake.”
{Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1894; Muslim, 1151.}

Causing ejaculation comes under the heading of the desire which the fasting person gives up. Whoever masturbates during the day in Ramadaan has to repent to Allaah and refrain from eating and drinking for the rest of the day, and he has to make up that fast later on. If he starts to masturbate then stops without ejaculating, he has to repent, but his fast is still valid, and he does not have to make it up later because he did not ejaculate. The fasting person should keep away from everything
that provokes desire and shun bad thoughts.

With regard to the emission of madhiy (prostatic fluid), the most correct view is that it does not invalidate the fast.

3️⃣ Eating and drinking
The third of the things that invalidate the fast is eating or drinking. This refers to food or drink reaching the stomach via the mouth. If anything reaches the stomach via the nose, this is also like eating or drinking.
Hence the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Snuff up water deeply into the nose (when doing wudoo’), except when you are fasting.” { Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 788.}

If water reaching the stomach via the nose did not invalidate the fast, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) would not have told those who are fasting not to snuff up water deeply into the nose.

4️⃣ Anything that is regarded as coming under the same heading as eating and drinking

This includes two things:
a- Transfusion of blood to one who is fasting – such as if he bleeds heavily and is given a blood transfusion. This invalidates the fast because blood is formed from food and drink.

b- Receiving via a needle (as in the case of a drip) nourishing substances which take the place of food and drink, because this is the same as food and drink. {Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, Majaalis Shahr Ramadaan, p/ 70.}

With regard to injections which do not replace food and drink, rather they are administered for the purpose of medical treatment – such as penicillin or insulin – or are given to energize the body, or for the purpose of vaccinations, these do not affect the fast, whether they are intravenous or intramuscular (injected into a vein or a muscle). {Fataawa Muhammad ibn Ibraaheem , 4/189.}

But to be on the safe side, it is advisable that these injections may be given at night if the case is not serious.

5️⃣ Letting blood by means of cupping and the likes
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The cupper and the one for whom cupping is done have both invalidated their fast.” {Narrated by Abu Dawood, 2367; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood , 2047.}

Donating blood comes under the same heading as cupping, because it affects the body in the same way. Based on this, it is not permissible for a person who is fasting to donate blood unless it is essential, in which case it is permissible. In that case the donor has broken his fast and must make up that day later on. {Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, Majaalis Shahr Ramadaan, p. 71}

If a person suffers a nosebleed, his fast is valid, because that happened involuntarily. {Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah , 10/264}

With regard to bleeding that results from extraction of a tooth, surgery or a blood test etc., that does not invalidate the fast because it is not cupping or something that is similar to cupping, unless it has an effect on the body similar to that of cupping.

6️⃣ Vomiting deliberately

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever vomits involuntarily does not have to make up the fast, but whoever vomits deliberately let him make up the fast.” { Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 720, classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi, 577.}

Ibn al-Mundhir said: The scholars are agreed that the fast of one who vomits deliberately is invalidated. {Al-Mughni , 4/368.}

Whoever vomits deliberately by sticking his finger in his throat, pressing his stomach, deliberately smelling something nasty or persisting in looking at something that makes him vomit, has to make up his fast later on. If his gorge rises, he should not suppress it, because that will harm him. {Majaalis Sharh Ramadaan, Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, p. 71.}

7️⃣ Menstruation and Nifaas
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Is it not the case that when she gets her period, she does not pray or fast?” {Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 304.}

When a woman sees the blood of her period or nifaas (post-partum bleeding), her fast becomes invalid even if that is one moment before sunset.

If a woman feels that her period has started but no blood comes out until after sunset, her fast is still valid. If the bleeding of a woman who is menstruating or in nifaas ceases at night and she has the intention of fasting, then dawn comes before she does ghusl, the view of all the scholars is that her fast is valid. {Al-Fath, 4/148.}

It is preferable for a woman to keep to her natural cycle and to accept that which Allaah has decreed for her, and not to take any medicine to prevent her period. She should accept what Allaah has decreed for her of not fasting during her period, and make up those days later on. This is what the Mothers of the Believers and the women of the Salaf used to do. {Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah , 10/151.}

In addition, it has been medically proven that these means of preventing menstruation are harmful and many women have suffered menstrual irregularities as a result. If a woman takes pills and her period stops as a result, that is fine, she can fast and her fast is acceptable.

These are things that invalidate the fast. All of them (apart from menses and nifaas) only invalidate the fast if three conditions are met:

1️⃣ That the person is aware of the ruling and not ignorant of it;

2⃣ That he did it knowingly and not out of forgetfulness; and

3️⃣ That he did it by choice and was not forced to do it.

THINGS THAT DO NOT SPOIL FAST

1⃣ Using chewing stick (Siwaak)

There is an erroneous judgement by some people that using chewing stick or by extension toothbrush nullifies a person’s Ramadan fast. This is far from the truth. All that needs to be done is to spit it out and use ordinary water to rinse the mouth and ensuring the water doesn’t go beyond the throat.

One of the companions of the Prophet of Allah (peace of Allah be upon his noble soul) called Amir Ibn Rabi’a (may Allah be pleased with him) said: “I saw the Prophet cleaning his teeth with Siwaak while he was fasting many times,” {as related in Saheeh Bukhari.}

2⃣ Tasting food

The condition which allows for food to be tasted, especially while cooking, is that the food will not pass through the throat and down into the stomach. In a Hadeeth in Saheeh Bukhari, Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) said: “There is no harm for a person to taste vinegar or anything while fasting, as long as it does not enter his throat.” {Bukhari}

3⃣ Embracing and kissing

According to a Hadeeth in Saheeh Bukhari, Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon his noble soul) used to kiss and embrace his wives, while fasting, because he had more control of his (sexual) desires than any of you (the Muslims).

However,scholars have talked extensively on this hadith that serious caution should be taken most especially the Youths among the couples not to embark on unnecessary kissing so as to ward off the Fitna of leading to sexual intercourse between them. The best stand is to study yourself as a couple before you embark on either to kiss yourselves during the day or delay everything till after Iftar.

4⃣ Being in an impure state while day breaks

If a man had sexual intercourse with his wife or wives as the case might be, and did not bath to remove the janabah (impurity from sexual intercourse)on himself, till the day breaks, there is nothing wrong with his fast. He can do the spiritual bath at any time of the day.

5⃣ Taking a bath

In a Hadeeth reported by Ahmad, he reported that the Prophet of Islam poured water over his head while he was fasting due to thirst or heat of the sun. There is no sin if a fasting person uses water to rinse his head, while fasting.

6⃣ Eating and drinking in forgetfulness

It was narrated that Prophet Muhammad said anyone who eats or drinks in forgetfulness, while fasting then remembers afterwards should not bother himself regarding his Ramadan fast. He should continue fasting, because the Messenger of Islam said if such a thing happens, it means Allah gave such a person the food or drink freely. There is nothing wrong with his fast. His fast is still valid.

However, one should fear Allah not to deceive himself by intentionally eating all in the name of forgetfulness.

7⃣ Using Kohl (antimony) and make ups
Kohl is called ‘Tiro’ in Yoruba language. It is applied to the eyes. It is the traditional form of eye pencil. A lady who is fasting can apply it to her eyes.

Apart from this, looking neat and gorgeous to one’s husband is advisable at all times. Dear Umus, don’t because of Ramadan look like a perforated rag in a general eatery before your husband. There is nothing bad in doing reasonable make-up allowed within the context of shariah, but don’t go beyond the boundary especially during the day break to avoid another hullabaloo.

8⃣ Wet dream

Wet dream is when a young man or a matured man , while sleeping dreams that he is having sexual intercourse with a female, and then ejaculates. When such a man wakes from his sleep, he will see semen on his body as a result of the wet dream. He needs not to panic about repaying his fast. All he needs to do is to take ghuslul janabah (that is the Islamic bath used to remove sexual impurity from the body) as the case may be, and then continue his fast.

And Allah knows best!

©️ Assoutudeen Prophetic Medicine Foundation (APMF)

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